Astronomija

Matematično izračunajte, ali je planet v retrogradnosti

Matematično izračunajte, ali je planet v retrogradnosti


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Poskušam ugotoviti, ali se planet v danem trenutku v očitnem retrogradnem gibanju glede na Zemljo. Glede na čas v Julijskih dneh.

Že imam geocentrične in heliocentrične koordinate in hitrosti planeta z uporabo ephemeris JPL, vendar nisem prepričan, katero matematično formulo uporabiti za prepoznavanje retrogradnega gibanja.

Prebral sem članek "https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/249493/mathematically-calculate-if-a-planet-is-in-retrograde", ki je imel podobno vprašanje, vendar nisem prepričan v to:

  1. Ali je odgovor pravilen, saj ni bil označen kot pravilen?
  2. Kako predstaviti zemljo v ravnini XY le, če ima ravnine XYZ in zakaj to sploh moramo storiti? Ali ne moremo uporabiti le heliocentrične ekvatorialne ravnine, ki je po mojem mnenju enaka tisti, ki jo uporabljajo Ephemeris NASA JPL.

Tu je hiter odgovor. Očitno retrogradno gibanje planeta, gledano z Zemlje, pomeni, da se njegova ekliptična dolžina zmanjšuje. (Hvala @barrycarter za popravek moje prejšnje izjave.) Izračunati morate navidezni kotni položaj planeta od Zemlje v ekliptičnih koordinatah (kot je razloženo tukaj in tukaj) in najti kraje, kjer se ekliptična dolžina zmanjšuje.

Položaje Zemlje lahko odštejete od položaja planeta v obeh koordinatah. Nato ti izrazimo ta vektor v sferičnih koordinatah. Vseeno je, ali je heliocentričen ali geocentričen. Pomembna je smer, v katero kažeta osi koordinatnega sistema, in ne kje je središče.

Če želite RA in dec, uporabite koordinate ICRF, ki jih je mogoče pretvoriti tudi v ekliptične koordinate. Enostaven način za to je uporaba python paketa Skyfield.

Tu je vzorčni scenarij in zaplet. To je Mars od leta 2010.0 do 2020.0, debela rdeča črta pa predstavlja retrogradno gibanje.

uvoz numpy kot np uvoz matplotlib.pyplot kot plt z skyfield.api uvoz obremenitev planeti = obremenitev ('de421.bsp') zemlja = planeti ['zemlja'] mars = planeti ['mars'] leto_zero = 2010 dni = np.linspace (1, 3650, 10000) let = nič_ leta + dni / 365.2564 ts = load.timescale () t = ts.utc (leto_zero, 1, dni) # zahvaljujoč komentarju @ barrycarter, naredite to na pravi način! eclat, eclon, ecd = earth.at (t) .observe (mars) .ecliptic_latlon () eclondgs = (180./np.pi) * eclon.radians eclondel = eclondgs [1:] - eclondgs [: - 1] eclondel [eclondel <-300] + = 360. # to je zabeba zaenkrat eclondel [eclondel> +300] - = 360. # to je norost za zdaj prograde = eclondel> 0. eclon_prograde = eclondgs.copy () [: -1] eclon_retrograde = eclondgs.copy () [: - 1] eclon_prograde [-prograde] = np.nan eclon_retrograde [prograde] = np.nan plt.figure () plt.plot (leta [: - 1], eclon_prograde, '-g', širina črte = 1) plt.plot (leta [: - 1], eclon_retrograde, '-r', širina črte = 3) plt.ylim (0, 360) plt.title ('Ekliptična dolžina Marsa (stopinje) AD 2010.0 do 2020.0 ', fontsize = 16) plt.show ()

Matematično izračunajte, ali je planet v retrogradni astronomiji

Ko je planet retrograden, se njegove energije obrnejo navznoter in postanejo bolj subjektivne. Energija se počasneje kaže v zunanjem svetu, deloma tudi zato, ker posameznik z retrogradnimi planeti razmišlja globlje o vpletenih energijah. Mnogi geniji in voditelji imajo retrogradne planete.

Po Martinu Schulmanu naj bi v njegovem Karmična astrologija: Retrograde in reinkarnacija amp, Letn. II., Retrogradni planeti običajno prebijejo časovno mejo. Posameznik v sedanjo inkarnacijo prinese spomine na prejšnja življenja. Obstajajo lahko občutki & ldquoblending življenjskih življenj & rdquo, za katere je značilna oseba, ki poskuša rešiti vprašanja, ki so še vedno nedokončana. Spomini so lahko tako živi, ​​da jih oseba ne prepozna kot & ldquomemories. & Rdquo Po besedah ​​Schulman & rsquos: & ldquoŽivi v otopeli fazi drugega časovnega pasu, katerega neustavljivi magnetizem se zdi še pomembnejši od njegovega trenutnega življenja. & Rdquo Posameznik še naprej oživlja izkušnje, povezane z določenim retrogradnim planetom.

Retrograde delujejo v več dimenzijah hkrati. Tako lahko oseba v tem življenju & ldquobe zase ali pred sabo, medtem ko še en del sebe sploh še ni v tem življenju. Poleg tega pomanjkanja sinhronizacije s kronološkim časom, ki bi že samo po sebi zadostovalo za razburjenje večine posameznikov, doživlja tudi na drugi ravni, precej edinstveno orientacijo v vesolju. & Rdquo (Schulman)

Schulman & rsquos & ldquoRetrogradni posameznik & rdquo se nanaša na: 1) 3 ali več retrograd v natalni karti, 2) katerega koli od osebnih planetov Retrograd ali 3) celo enega samega Retrograda planeta blizu Ascendenta ali Srednjega neba (vrh 10. hiše se imenuje Midheaven) .

Še enkrat citiram Schulmana: & ldquoRetrogradni planet s svojimi močnimi karmičnimi lekcijami, ki se prenašajo v to življenje, ponavadi poudarja zadevo ali obliko strani življenja in meče človeka v bolj primitivne dele sebe, kjer se njegov boj za preživetje sredi pogojev in ljudi okoli postane prevladujoč nad izpolnitvijo svoje Duše. To se še bolj poveča v primeru notranjih [osebnih] Retrograd (Merkur, Venera in amp Mars), skozi katere se človek ukvarja z enakimi intimnimi, osebnimi in zasebnimi deli sebe, s katerimi se bori že od začetka leta čas. & rdquo

Tolažilno in spodbudno je vedeti & ldquot, da sta duša in duh nad zakoni karme & rdquo in vse težave je mogoče rešiti. Mnogo duhovne rasti lahko dosežemo s premagovanjem težav, povezanih z retrogradnimi planeti.

OSEBNI RETROGRADNI PLANETI

NALOGA : Preglejte svojo Natalno karto in ugotovite, ali imate planete, ki so retrogradni. Govorimo o samo planeti tu obstajajo tudi drugi dejavniki, ki se lahko izrazijo tudi retrogradno. Naštejte svoje retrogradne planete. Ali izpolnjujete zahteve za to, da ste retrograden posameznik? Glej zgoraj definicijo Schulman & rsquos. Retrogradni planeti bodo imeli retrogradni znak vključen v oznako stopinje / znaka. Zmeden? Glejte Vzorčni grafikon & hellip Venera je Retrogradna v 2. hiši.

SONCE in LUNA ne greta retrogradno.

RETROGRADE MERKURJA & ndash usmerja misli navznoter in daje nagnjenost k večkratnemu pregledu prejšnjih dogodkov in lekcij. Miselni proces temelji na podzavesti in ne na zavednem umu. To pomeni učni proces je bolj pravi možgani kot levi možgani absorbirate bistvo in ne podrobnosti. Iz tega razloga boste na standardiziranih in / ali na dejstvih usmerjenih preizkusih verjetno dosegli nižji rezultat od tistih študentov, ki nimajo RETROGRADE.

STARŠI, BODITE POZORNI & ndash Otrok z RETROGRADE MERKURIJOM bo verjetno začutil in mu povedal, da je manj inteligenten, kot je v resnici. Ta proces učenja otrok in rsquos je drugačen, ne manj inteligenten.

Oseba Mercury RETROGRADE je sposobna prisluhniti kolektivnemu nezavednemu in zaznati znanje iz prejšnjih časov. Ta proces je nezavesten. Ker veste več, kot lahko zavestno komunicirate, se lahko pojavi frustracija. Lahko se ukvarjate z obliko svojih idej, kar ustvarja ovire za bistvo vašega znanja.

Ustvarjalna mesta, ki zahtevajo neverbalno komunikacijo, kot sta glasba in slikanje, so odlično izrazno sredstvo za RETROGRADE. Številni naši glasbeni geniji imajo RETROGRADE MERKURJA. Zgodovina je tudi naravni izhod.

MERKURIJ RETROGRADE KARMA: Odnosi & ndash s težnjo, da se odzove na druge & ldquoas, ​​če & rdquo simbolizirajo osebe iz preteklosti.

VENERA RETROGRADE & ndash označuje težave pri svobodnem izražanju ljubezni in naklonjenosti do drugih. Morda se vam zdi, da vam primanjkuje čustvene izpolnjenosti in si navadno interpretirate življenjske dogodke & rsquos skozi objektiv & ldquo, kako zelo sem ljubljen ali prikrajšan za ljubezen? & Rdquo Odnosi, ki temeljijo na čustvih, so lahko težki, ker se navadno ponotranjite in s tem pretiravate s škodo.

VENERA RETROGRADE KARMA: Odnosi & ndash razkriva, da vaša duša nosi spomine na pretekle življenjske boleče odnose in velik nesporazum o naravi ljubezni. Intenzivna čustvena bolečina v preteklem življenju lahko povzroči trenutno težnjo, da se odrežete popolnega doživljanja bogastva ljubezni in izpuščanja strahu pred tem, da bi vas še enkrat prizadeli. Ponavadi se boste odzvali na sedanjost, kot da je preteklost, s čimer boste vnaprej programirali svoje sedanje ljubezenske odnose. Običajno se blokirate pred srečo, če se preveč trudite, da bi jo dosegli.

STARŠI: Spodbujajte svoje VENERA RETROGRADE otroka, da se vključi v vse dejavnosti, ki v njegovo vsakdanje življenje dodajo lepoto, umetnost in ljubezen. VENERA je planet lepote, naučite svojega otroka razmišljati in ustvarjati z izrazi, ki se osredotočajo na izboljšanje življenjskih situacij. Ljubiti živali je lahko v pomoč, samo poskrbite, da se bo tudi otrok naučil ljubiti ljudi svobodno in v sedanjem kontekstu.

MARS RETROGRADE & ndash premakne zunanji potisk energije, značilen za MARS, in ga usmeri navznoter. Veliko energije boste porabili za notranje podoživljanje svojih preteklih izkušenj. Ker ste nenehno v preteklosti, lahko osebam v vašem sedanjem življenju in okolici dodelite vloge iz preteklih življenj. Tukaj je močna težnja k dajanju prednosti uresničevanju vaših duhovnih želja, kar ima za posledico zanemarjanje potreb fizičnega telesa in rsquosa. Potreben je namerni poudarek na celostni rasti. Spolne izkušnje so lahko manj izpolnjujoče, ker je vaša energija obrnjena navznoter. Vendar je seks, ki je globoko zakoreninjen v ljubezni med partnerjema in si prizadeva za vzajemni duhovni orgazem, lahko veliko bolj naraven izraz za MARS RETROGRADE.

MARS RETROGRADE KARMA & ndash označuje vašo dejanja so ponavadi napor za poustvarjanje situacij iz prejšnjih življenj. Energijo lahko porabite za iskanje ljudi v sedanjosti, ki lahko simbolizirajo tiste, ki so vas izpolnili v preteklosti. Lahko poskusite izvesti vse, česar v prejšnjih življenjih niste mogli izraziti. Lahko se preveč odzovete, če vaša prizadevanja ne dajo želenih rezultatov. Ta pretirana reakcija lahko povzroči & ldquo prihodnost & rdquo premočno, samo da bi se ljudje umaknili.

STARŠI: Pomagajte svojemu MARS RETROGRADE otroka, da oblikuje vsakodnevno rutino veliko spanja, hranljive prehrane, veliko gibanja na prostem. Ker se MARS RETROGRADE navadno bolj zanima za duhovne želje, pomagajte otroku razumeti, da je fizično telo & ldquoBožji tempelj & rdquo in je zato treba zanj skrbeti.

Z otrokoma VENUS in amp MARS RETROGRADE, starši so lahko v pomoč, če z otrokom razpravljajo o razliki med spomini na preteklo življenje in sedanjimi izkušnjami. Pomagajte otroku, da bo zaznal, kdaj se pretirano odziva.

OPOZORILO, STARŠI: Če se odločite pomagati svojemu Venusu Retrograde ali otroku Mars Retrograde, da bo razbral spomine na pretekla življenja iz sedanjih izkušenj, NE ODREČITE PRETEKLIH ŽIVLJENJ. Če bi to storili, bi preprosto ustvarili več zmede. Namesto tega prepoznajte pretekle življenjske spomine kot resnične in nato otroka vodite pri ugotavljanju, ali so se dogodki, ki se jih spomni, zgodili v sedanjem okolju ali ne.

STARŠI: Vem, da je tega težko razumeti, če tega niste doživeli, zato naj dam primer iz svojega življenja. Čeprav moja Venera ali Mars nista retrogradni, se spominjam, da sem že nekaj življenj živel v Egiptu. Ko sem vstopil v prakso zasebnega svetovanja, mi je komaj uspelo finančno držati stvari skupaj. To je trajalo leta. Končno sem nekega dne sedel za računalnikom in slišal, kako razmišljam: & ldquoČe bi imel veliko denarja, ne bi dokončal svoje misije duše & rsquos za to inkarnacijo. & Rdquo Pretresen sem spoznal, da si to govorim že leta. V meditaciji sem prosil, da razumem ta miselni vzorec, in pokazali so mi celo življenje, v katerem sem bil zelo premožen. Namesto da bi v preteklem življenju uporabil svoje talente, sem svoj denar porabil za igranje. Bilo je & mdashin Soul izrazi & mdasha življenje, v katerem nisem izpolnil svoje duše in rsquos namen. Izpolnjevanje mojega namena in poslanstva za to inkarnacijo duše mi je najbolj v mislih že od majhnega otroka. Spoznal sem, da doslej v tej inkarnaciji nisem doživel finančnega obilja, ker mi je spomin na preteklo življenje ostal v polsvetem zavedanju. Zaradi ločevanja preteklih življenjskih izkušenj od izkušenj te inkarnacije so moje potrebe obilno izpolnjene, saj še naprej izpolnjujem svoje poslanstvo za to življenje.

Vlada večnemu jazu, planetu modrosti

Jupiter je vir navdušenja, optimizma in želje, da izkoristite priložnosti, ki se vam ponujajo v življenju.

JUPITER RETROGRADE svojo energijo širjenja obrne navznoter, tako da se zgodi veliko notranje rasti, pogosto s pomočjo duhovno usmerjenih študij. JUPITER RETROGRADE ponavadi zavlačuje in načrtuje, nato pa ponovno načrtuje, tako da s temeljito načrtovanim projektom nikamor ne pride. JUPITER RETROGRADE ponuja priložnost za zelo duhovno inkarnacijo. Iskati morate svojo resnico kajti vsakdanje in trenutno stanje vas bo verjetno pustilo nezadovoljne. Ti si a svobodnega duha in ne more z veseljem stopiti po stopinjah drugih. Prisotni so lahko velika modrost in preroška sposobnost, zlasti ko dosežete duhovno zrelost. JUPITER RETROGRADE lahko prinese številne d & eacutej & agrave-vu izkušnje, ki jih lahko čutite doma kjerkoli na planetu.

STARŠI, vaš JUPITER RETROGRADE otrok bo verjetno našel malo vrednosti ali pomena v marsičem, kar naša družba šteje za negovane tradicije. Vaš otrok se je inkarniral, da živi svoje bogastvo tako navzven kot navznoter. Prestrogo okolje lahko povzroči notranji nemir in nezadovoljstvo, ki ga otrok morda ne bo mogel ubesediti ali opredeliti. Vedite, da mora vaš otrok raziskati različne kraje, dejavnosti, filozofije in sam določiti trajni pomen vsakega. Uživajte v vsestranskosti in edinstvenih spoznanjih, ki vam jih lahko ponudi vaš otrok JUPITER RETROGRADE.

PREBIVALEC NA PRAGU

Planet samodiscipline, cilja SATURN & rsquos za vas je popolnost.

SATURN nam pomaga nositi svojo karmo in uspešno prestati svoje teste. Dokler voljno ne sprejmemo samodiscipline, doživljamo SATURN kot občutke omejenosti, pomanjkanja, zamude in razočaranja. Resnična želja SATURN & rsquos je, da nam podari modrost in sočutje.

SATURN RETROGRADE je vaš signal, da ponavljate vse življenje. Ta inkarnacija je vaša druga priložnost, zato boste občutili breme, ko se boste spopadali z dvema življenjima hkrati. Zato lahko doživite notranje dvome o lastni vrednosti in sposobnosti premagovanja težav. Dobra novica je, da vaša duša ve, da ste dosegli duhovno zrelost, ki je potrebna za uspešno ponovno življenje v življenju. V prejšnjih življenjih ste napredovali skozi velike osebne borbe in žrtve. Ko se boste naučili teči z disciplino SATURN & rsquos, boste nagrajeni z izjemno modrostjo. SATURN je v RETROGRADE gibanju udoben in ko se pretakate z njim, razvijete sposobnost, da izkoristite vse svoje modrosti in talente iz preteklega življenja. SATURN RETROGRADE je znak stare Duše, ki je napredovala daleč na duhovni poti. Zdaj ste se inkarnirali, da izpopolnite, kar ste se naučili.

STARŠI: vaš SATURN RETROGRADE otrok je verjetno resne narave in se počuti preveč odgovornega. Otroku lahko pomagate tako, da v dnevni urnik vključite redna obdobja igre. Morda boste morali otroka prepričati, da boste starši, dokler ne bo odrastel, dokler ne postane odrasel. Samodisciplina, naučena z igro, je lahko učinkovita. Tekmovalni športi lahko otroka preobremenijo, da mora biti odgovoren in dobro delati za svojo ekipo. Posamezni športi, kot so plavanje, proga in tenis, so lahko bolj koristni. Opazujte svojega otroka in sledite svojim intuitivnim navodilom. Kiparstvo, šivanje in obdelava lesa so lahko igrivi načini za zadovoljitev potrebe SATURN-a za gradnjo struktur.

SATURN RETROGRADE KARMA & ndash ponovitev življenja, z dodatno težo. SATURN RETROGRADE bo tokrat resno poskrbel za to.

ZUNANJI RETROGRADNI PLANETI

RETROGRADE URANA & ndash ustvarja težave pri zavedanju in izražanju vaše notranje individualnosti. Lahko pride do ponovnega odkrivanja idej iz prejšnjih življenj. URANUS RETROGRADE vam daje prepričljiv občutek odgovornosti do osebnostne rasti, saj čutite, da se krepi tudi človeški napredek kot celota. Ste predhodnica prihodnosti, zelo izkoriščeni v bogastvo življenja. Biti morate izvirni, raziskovati morate novo. Svoje ideje morate deliti z drugimi. Ti si a svobodni duh in ni mogoče vezati na to, da bi drugi razumeli, o čem gre. Vaša pot je lahko dolga in ukrivljena, vendar lahko med potovanjem spoznate izjemno srečo.

URAN RETROGRADE KARMA & ndash se nanaša na karmične družinske in družbene težave. V vaših prizadevanjih, da se povežete z drugimi in se reformirate, se lahko vaš nezavedni um spremeni. URANUS RETROGRADE lahko uniči razmerja zaradi vaše spremenljivosti, zaradi česar boste videti hinavski. Vaša mentalna in čustvena telesa se lahko borijo med seboj, saj veste, da morate narediti eno stvar, hkrati pa čutite, da morate narediti drugo. RETROGRADE URANA bi vas dvignili zavest nad čustvenimi / mentalnimi telesi in se osredotočili na intuitivno telo.

STARŠI & ndash cenijo vašega brezskrbnega otroka. Spodbujajte njegovo izvirnost in iznajdljivost. Ne poskušajte imeti tega otroka URAN RETROGRADE je svoj edinstveni jaz in se bo uprl vsem poskusom, da bi ga / jo uklenili.

RETROGRADE NEPTUNA & ndash daje željo po razkrivanju skrivnosti in razkrivanju verskih namišljenosti. Imeli boste intuitivno zavedanje svoje podzavesti, lahko pa boste imeli težave pri zavestni prilagoditvi. NEPTUNE RETROGRADE veliko lažje prilagodi podzavesti / nezavednemu, ko se fokus preusmeri z uporabo orodja, kot je astrologija, ali ko je zavestni um zaseden s to nalogo. Zato je pomembno je poslušati in upoštevati vpoglede, ki se vam zdijo prišli iz & ldquoout of the blue. & rdquo

RETROGRADE NEPTUNA označuje željo po ogledu materialnega sveta z vidika njegovega pomena za Dušo in njeno rast. Tako vam NEPTUNE RETROGRADE ponuja priložnost, da v tej inkarnaciji dosežete zelo napredno stopnjo duhovne evolucije. NEPTUNE RETROGRADE zahteva, da živite v materialnem svetu, hkrati pa ostanete ločeni od njega. Za druge se vam zdi, da vam manjka zdrave pameti, ki motivira vedenje drugih. Namesto tega vibrirate na višjo glasbo in imate neposredno uglašenost s svojo dušo. Z vesoljem ste veliko bolj v stiku kot s snovnim svetom in veste veliko več, kot lahko izrazite z besedami.

NEPTUN RETROGRADE KARMA & ndash Živite skozi karma učenja, kako razlikovati med sanjami to bo prineslo resnično izpolnitev in tiste, ki se zdijo, da to tudi počnejo. Ta učni proces lahko pomeni, da poskušate živeti ene sanje za drugimi. Ker je NEPTUNE RETROGRADE, ki deluje na osebnostno usmerjeni ravni, lahko zmeden, morda ne boste zaupali svoji intuiciji in mdashevu, čeprav ste zelo intuitiven.

STARŠI & ndash svoj RETROGRADE NEPTUNA otrok se lahko zdi nepraktičen v primerjavi s statusom družbe & rsquos. Morda vas bo zamikalo, da bi svoje otroke zadušili sanje ali jih zavrnili kot & ldquooff zid. & Rdquo Vedite, da vaš otrok hkrati živi v dveh svetovih. Preprosto bodite v podporo in dovolite, da se pokaže njegova edinstvenost. To otrok bo z veseljem služil drugim, tudi v mladosti. Umetniške in glasbene dejavnosti nas zadovoljujejo.

RETROGRADE PLUTO & ndash svojo transformacijsko energijo še globlje spremeni v nadzavest, prinaša notranjo osvetlitev že dolgo preden jo lahko izrazite v zunanjem svetu. PLUTO RETROGRADE označuje prenos psihičnih moči iz prejšnjih življenj. Te pristojnosti je treba uporabljati samo na konstruktiven način. Začutili boste boj človeštva v sebi & mdashboj za človeštvo in rsquos je vaš boj. Zavedate se in se počutite odgovorne za dvigovanje zavestnega zavedanja, da lahko s tem dvignete zavest človeštva.

PLUTO RETROGRADE KARMA & ndash A karmični dolg je v lasti človeštva, ki izhaja iz starosti, označene z znakom, v katerem je PLUTO. Ta dolg je treba plačati z nesebičnim služenjem človeštvu. Možna je izjemna duhovna rast imate priložnost, da se dvignete nad karmo človeške rase in stopite s kolesa ponovnega rojstva. PLUTO RETROGRADE se pridruži NEPTUNE RETROGRADE in vas prosi, da živite v svetu, hkrati pa ostanete ločeni od njega.

STARŠI & ndash razumeti boste morali psihične moči, ki jih vaš otrok lahko naravno pokaže, in si prizadevati, da jih ne boste zadušili. Namesto tega pomagajte svojemu otroku, da jih uporabi v konstruktivne namene, medtem ko z njimi ne ustvarjate velikega posla. So naravne, saj vaš otrok z njim ravna tako kot z drugimi otroki.

(PRECESIJA STAROSTI, najdena v 4. lekciji, bo razkrila čas starosti, označen z lokacijo znaka vašega PLUTO RETROGRADE.)

Ko se poglobite v svojo interpretacijo Natal Chart, boste ugotovili, da nekatere konfiguracije nasprotujejo drugim.

Ste produkt svoje večne preteklosti. Nekatere vidike sebe ste razvili bolj kot druge. Ker je energija trajna, načini, na katere ste to kvalificirali, ostanejo pri vas.

Kot sem že omenil, je najbolje, da se osredotočite na tiste lastnosti in talente, ki so večkrat omenjeni v vaši Natalni karti. Manj omenjeni so šibkejši in nanje ni treba biti osredotočen, razen če intuitivno zaznate, da predstavljajo karmične preostale značilnosti ali vprašanja, ki niso bila v celoti spremenjena in preoblikovana v pozitiven izraz.

Če se osredotočite na razvoj svojih pozitivnih lastnosti in talentov, običajno negativne odpadejo.


Retrogradni planeti v vaši natalni karti in karmi preteklega življenja

Vsakič, ko gre Merkur v retrogradno stanje, se počutite prestrašeni, kajti takrat se stvari & # 8216 gredo narobe & # 8217, a res? Kadar koli obstajajo planetarne retrograde, se vam pojavijo lekcije. Zato je vedno pametno upočasniti življenje na področju, ki mu vlada retrogradni planet. Razlog, da je marsikoga moteče zaradi tega, da gre Merkur v retrogradno smer, je, da naša življenja temeljijo na komunikaciji, mislih, uporabi moči in aparatov, prevozu in samo na poti. Živo srebro vlada vsemu, kar je pomembno za tisto, zato se, ko je v retrogradnosti, te stvari prekinejo. Ko se to prekine, potem tudi naše življenje.

Vendar pa so retrograde čas za upočasnitev, ocenjevanje, povezovanje prostih koncev in načrtovanje, ne da bi jih izvedli. Ali so planeti zdaj v središču pozornosti retrogradni planeti, ali gredo resnično retrogradno? Ali gredo res nazaj? Ne, vendar se zdijo takšni in tudi njihova energija. Morda ste se tudi vprašali, ali je med vašim rojstvom obstajal kakšen retrogradirajoč planet in če je, kaj to pomeni. Pogovorimo se več o tem.

Retrogradiranje planetov

Zelo redko se zgodi, da se kdo rodi brez retrogradnih planetov ali vseh planetov v retrogradnosti. V povprečju se ljudje rodijo z 2 do 3 planeti v retrogradni obliki, kot je razvidno iz njihove natalne karte. Tisti, ki ne sledijo astrologiji ali ji ne verjamejo, iz očitnih razlogov ne bi pomislili. Tisti, ki astrologijo spremljajo ali pa so odprti zanjo, bodo želeli vedeti več o tem, zakaj so nekateri planeti na svojih kartah retrogradni.

Astrološki pomen je, zakaj so nekateri planeti retrogradni, drugi pa ne. Planeti, ki so v času vašega rojstva v retrogradnosti, predstavljajo energije, na katere se morate bolj osredotočiti, ker se v njih počutijo v nasprotju z zunanjim vplivom na vas. Kadar energije začutimo večinoma znotraj od rojstva (česar bi se spomnili iz otroštva), lahko predstavlja karmo, ki je ni mogoče razrešiti iz prejšnjih življenj. Planeti v retrogradni obliki v vaši natalni karti imajo ta pomen. Predstavljajo nekaj karme preteklega življenja, s katero se soočate v tem življenju, ker ste se odločili, da jih razrešite pred svojo trenutno inkarnacijo. Vrsto karme, s katero se morate soočiti, predstavlja planet, ki je v retrogradnosti. Pojdimo čez planet ali planete, ki so bili v času vašega rojstva v retrogradnosti, in se naučimo o vrstah težav, ki jih morate rešiti iz prejšnjih življenj.

Živo srebro v retrogradnosti

Živo srebro gre večkrat na leto v retrogradnost. Če ste se rodili v času, ko je bil Merkur v retrogradni obliki, boste morda ugotovili, da je vaše življenje nekoliko lažje, medtem ko je za druge zahtevno. To je zato, ker zelo dobro razumete energijo. Morda vas je tudi strah, da bi rekli napačno in spregovorili. Govorjenje v javnosti sploh ni tisto, kar bi vam bilo prijetno. Mnogi ljudje se bojijo, da bi javno govorili, toda v vašem primeru vas ta ideja zboli.

Karmičen razlog je, da ima Mercury retrogradno svojo karto. To je posledica dejstva, da ste svojo zmožnost komunikacije ali analize zlorabili, da bi povzročili težave večji skupini ljudi. Na primer, morda ste izrekli nekaj laži, ki so na koncu marsikoga prizadele. Vendar pa je za ponovno vzpostavitev prepričanja v komunikacijo najprej treba verjeti v svoje komunikacijske sposobnosti. Pišite članke, ustvarite spletni dnevnik ali naredite nekaj dnevnika. Osredotočite se na katero koli vrsto ustvarjalnih možnosti.

Venera v retrogradni

Kadar Venera zaide v retrogradnost, resnica o vaših odnosih pride na vrsto in nikoli ni dobro začeti novih odnosov. Če ste se s tem planetom rodili retrogradno, vam lahko ohranjanje odnosov predstavlja velik izziv. Zelo si želite ljubezenskega življenja, a tudi ne veste, kaj v tem iščete.

Karmični razlog je, da so vas v prejšnjem življenju z ljubimcem ločile sile, ki niso bile pod vašim nadzorom. Zato nikoli niste mogli naprej in razvijali novih odnosov. Zato je to boleče področje osredotočenosti. Morda je šlo na primer za Romeo in Julijo. Morda se veliko spopadate tudi z ljubeznijo do sebe. Pri tem si lahko pomagate tako, da sestavite seznam tega, kar v zvezi resnično želite, in ne hitite vanj, dokler natančno ne veste, kaj iščete. In zaobljubite se, da se ne boste uklonili obveznostim, če bo zveza, v kateri ste, postala resna.

Mars v retrogradnosti

Kadarkoli je Mars v retrogradnosti, pride do neravnovesja med jezo in premajhno silo. Lahko postanete pretirano agresivni in hkrati premalo asertivni. S tem se borite skozi vse življenje. Borite se z jezo, ki jo težko obvladujete, nato pa se počutite zelo krive, ker ste s svojo jezo izgubili nadzor. Pravzaprav čutite veliko sramu.

Morda ste bili v prejšnjem življenju bodisi suženj, ki je bil poln zamer, vendar zaradi strahu nikoli ni spregovoril. Mogoče ste bili vojak ali nekdo, ki ga je mojster ali vlada proti vaši volji pričakoval fizična grozodejstva. Tega si nikoli niste mogli odpustiti. Način, kako to rešiti, je aktivno vključevanje dobrodelnih organizacij s fizičnim delom, ki vam bo pomagalo usmerjati svojo energijo na pozitiven način.

Jupiter v retrogradnosti

Kadarkoli Jupiter zaide v retrogradnost, je denar lahko ožji in dvomite v svoja prepričanja in znanje. Če ste se s tem planetom rodili retrogradno, ste se morda trudili verjeti vsem, česar so vas učili v šoli. Morda ste tudi tip, ki sledi verovanjem, ki niso običajna, vendar se tudi bojite o njih veliko govoriti. Zaznate, da ne bodo dobro sprejeti.

Možno je, da se vas je v prejšnjem življenju družba ali izogibala ali pa ste se zapustili zaradi dejstva, da ste imeli prepričanja, ki niso bila priljubljena. Mogoče ste bili mistik in ste zaradi strahu pred odtujitvijo ali preganjanjem svoja prepričanja tudi obdržali v sebi. Lekcija v tem življenju je zaupati lastnim prepričanjem in govoriti o njih. Nikoli ne veste, komu bi lahko koristilo to, kar jim morate povedati. Napišite blog o tem. Pričakujte nekaj kritik, lahko pa tudi bralcu veliko pomagate!

Saturn v retrogradnosti

Kadarkoli je Saturn v retrogradni fazi, se počutite, kot da se stari projekti ne končajo zlahka in trdo delate, ne da bi veliko dosegli. Ko imate v svojem grafikonu to retrogradnost, se spopadate s komer koli, ki ima avtoriteto, kot je šef ali vaš oče. Zamerite si ukaze, vendar se neradi držite tega, kar pravijo.

V prejšnjem življenju ste bili morda suženj ali pa so vas zlorabljali in celo mučili tisti, ki so vas držali v ujetništvu. Ali pa so vam kakršne koli avtoritete storile grozne stvari in niste spregovorili in dovolili, da vas ustrahujejo in prevladujejo nad vami. Delali ste in delali brez nagrade. Zato ne spoštujete avtoritet, vendar se bojite, da bi šli proti njim.

Biti samozavesten je lekcija, ki se je je treba naučiti in tudi spoznati, da so vaši dosežki in trdo delo nekaj, na kar morate biti ponosni. Če vas šef nadleguje, bodite odločni, vendar spoštljivi in ​​to jasno povejte, če tega ne prenašate. Pojdite na višje vodstvo, da tudi vi spregovorite.

Uran v retrogradnosti

Kadarkoli je Uran v retrogradnosti, začutite velike nepričakovane spremembe znotraj. Če ste se s tem planetom rodili retrogradno, se na kakršen koli način borite za to, da bi se prilagodili, in ste izjemno napeti. Nočete slediti kakršni koli družinski tradiciji. Kolikor je dobro biti sam in delati, kar je prav za vas, se morate prilagoditi določeni stopnji, da boste imeli neko strukturo. Pomanjkanje strukture, ki ustreza vašemu početju, je v vašem življenju povzročilo opustošenje.

V prejšnjem življenju ste se morda uprli pravilom in s tem tvegali življenje. Mogoče je bil razlog altruističen, na primer skrivanje judovskih civilistov v vašem domu med 2. svetovno vojno. Toda ne glede na razlog ste kršili pravila, ki jih je določila vlada ali vaša družina. Namerno ste se uprli. Morda ste vodili tudi upora, ki so vključevali veliko skupino ljudi, ki so na koncu propadli.

Na kar se morate osredotočiti, morate biti vedno sami in biti ponosni na to, kdo ste in kaj ste postali, prisiliti se k kompromisom in upoštevati nekatera pravila.

Neptun v retrogradnosti

Retrogradni Neptun vam lahko pomaga ustvariti nekaj dodatne kreativnosti, vendar lahko ovira vašo sposobnost delovanja v resničnem svetu. Tisti, ki imajo to retrogradnost na svojih rojstnih kartah, so morda tisti, ki sanjajo do te mere, da je neprilagojen. Zaradi tega se lahko borijo v resničnem svetu. Some may have struggled with drugs and alcohol but not all. However, those with this retrograde can be quite eccentric and do not like society’s expectations.

In a previous life, running away from responsibilities is something that those with this retrograde have done. Maybe one married someone rich and lived a decadent life without working as a result, for example. The best thing to do is to harness the power of creativity while applying it to living in the real world.

Pluto In Retrograde

Pluto in retrograde is a time when inner transformations take place, and if they don’t, then they are forced upon you once the planet goes direct. If you were born with this retrograde, then you struggle when it comes to trusting the world and even yourself. You alienate yourself as a result.

Perhaps in a previous life, you were ostracized and blamed for something you did not do, and no one supported you. You had to live with the percussions of the community being against you. You may have been wrongly convicted of a crime and only you were the one who knew you were innocent whereas no one else believed you were.

It is important to trust yourself and those who you know for a fact have your back because someone out there does!

Planetary retrogrades in your chart are not the only sign of past life karma that is indicated in your chart. But they are significant. Therefore, that does not mean that if you have no planets in retrograde you are free of karma. If you are here, you have karma. The Sun and Moon never are in retrograde and have their own significance when it comes to past life karma as well.


Astronomija

1. How did the geocentric model explain the retrograde motion of planets?
A. Earth moves faster in its orbit and passes the other planets.
B. The planets move backward when they get too close to earth.
C. The planets travel in circles as they move around earth in a circle.
D. Earth moves away from the planets, causing them to appear to move backwards.

4. Using Kepler's third law, how long does it take Saturn to orbit the sun given that its distance from the sun is 9.529 AU?
A. 4.45 years
B. 27 years
C. 29.4 years
D. 91 years

5. Ancient civilizations used astronomical objects to define time, including the number of days is a week. Why are there seven days in a week?
A. They could only see seven rings around Saturn.
B. Only seven objects changed position over time.
C. They could only see seven galaxies without using a telescope.
D. Only seven signs of the zodiac were indentified by ancient people.

6. Which of the following was the earliest solar system to exist?
A. Aristotelian
B. heliocentric
C. Copernican
D. Ptolemaic

8. By comparing the position of the sun and the shadows cast at noon on the summer solstice in two different cities, Eratosthenes was the first to determine,
A. The size of earth
B. The distance from earth to sun
C. The earth was round
D. The distance between the two cities

9. Kepler's three laws resulted from his careful analysis of _____ data, and we're not derived from a mathematical model.
A. Experimental
B. Hypothetical
C. Theoretical
D. Observational

10. How did ancient civilizations use a stick in the ground to find the direction north?
A. The shadow of the stick points north when the sun rises in the morning.
B. The shadow of the stick points north at approximately noon.
C. The shadow of the stick points north when the sun sets in the evening.
D. The shadow of the stick points north when the shadow is the longest.


Saturn Retrograde 2020

Known as the master planet of karma, Saturn’s annual retrogradations invite us to reflect on duties and responsibilities the rigidity of thought how you deal with loss, depression and difficult times self-imposed limits (both healthy and restrictive) and the restructuring of long-term objectives.

From May 10 to September 28

In May 2020, Saturn will begin its annual apparent setback in Aquarius, on 05/10 later, on 07/01, it will enter Capricorn (still in apparent recoil), sign in which it will begin its direct phase, on September 28.

Retrograde Saturn in Aquarius refers to reviewing the responsibilities inherent in friendship relationships, or interaction with groups the fear of social exclusion and ask yourself whether the desire for independence hinders the formation of sincere and lasting bonds.

On the other hand, Saturn retrograde in Capricorn (01/07) imposes considerations on the restriction of the soul’s desires (privileging the material) lack of discipline or confidence in yourself and conflicting relationships with authority figures or family patriarchs.

Venus retrograde 2020

Every 18-19 months, Venus meets a retrogradation process, for about 40 days. The planet of desire in apparent recoil points to the revision of sentimental relationships (present and past) the management of own resources (material and intellectual) and the beliefs that support the self-esteem and the scale of values ​​of the subject.

From May 13 to June 25

On May 13, Venus will begin to retrograde in Gemini, a process that will culminate on June 25, when it begins its direct phase in the sign of the twins.

During this transit, specifically on 06/03, the lower conjunction Sun – Venus, also known as Venus Star Point, will take place. In the event, the planet of desire will be presented as Morning Star.

Retrograde Venus in Gemini can create some confusion in the interaction with loved ones and people from the immediate surroundings In addition to generating interference, in the process of promoting your ideas.

It is possible to take advantage of Venus’s retrogradation in Gemini to question yourself about a new career or vocation investment for education, travel and new experiences and design strategies that persuade others to accompany your purpose.

Do not forget that Venus retrograde in Gemini is able to bring to light the secrets of third parties (and their own) and hinder immediate decision making, due to the diversity of options available

Jupiter retrograde 2020

The fifth of the retrograde planets 2020 will be Jupiter. Known as the planet of expansion, Jupiter’s retrogradations invite you to reflect on religion, belief systems, life philosophy, the individual’s vision, ideals, and growth potential.

From May 14 to September 12

On May 14, Jupiter will begin its annual retrogradation, this time under the influence of Capricorn, a sign in which it will begin its direct phase, on September 12.

Jupiter retrograde in Capricorn reminds us to explore what your goals (personal and professional) are in the long term, and the obstacles that overlap them, from your point of view the path to personal fulfillment the preparation to assume key positions or positions of high responsibility the academic plans and international expansion.

Neptune retrograde 2020

The annual retrogradation of Neptune, planet of the depths, imposes the need for introspection (to reflect, not to flee from the present) they also represent a space to connect with inspiration, a higher vision of being, divine love and spirituality.

In the same way, this transit refers to illusions, deceptions, and a high susceptibility to substances such as alcohol, or the adverse effects of medications.

From June 23 to November 28

The annual retrogradation of Neptune will begin on 06/23 in Pisces, a sign where the apparent retreat of the planet from the depths will culminate, when the direct phase begins, on 11/28.

Retrograde Neptune in Pisces refers to evasion or disconnection from reality and warns about the dangers of escapism, or being a victim of manipulative people, that encourage the sacrifice of third parties for their own benefit.

Uranus retrograde 2020

With Uranus retrograde, the focus is on what restricts personal freedom (from the perspective of the subject) the need for change the recognition of one’s originality radical actions and the rebellion.

From August 15 to January 14, 2021

Uranus will begin its annual retrogradation process, on August 15 under the influence of Taurus, a sign in which the apparent retreat of the planet of change will culminate, on January 14, 2021.

Uranus retrograde in Taurus aims to analyze the motives that drive the changes (are they real and justified, or unnecessary?) the resistance to let go of the old mental and financial structures the defense of individuality and the identification of the actions, which will allow to materialize the proposed goals.

Mars retrograde 2020

Every 26 months, Mars meets a retrogradation process, for about 70 days. The warrior planet in apparent recoil refers to frustration at the impossibility of action and highlights the importance of reflecting before acting, (avoid confrontations).

Similarly, retrograde Mars invites you to question what motivates you to action what are the causes of repressed anger and the difficulty to stop reliving the past, instead of focusing on the present.

This transit can be used to complete incomplete tasks repair mechanisms review strategies develop patience attend to intuition and act subtly. Avoid exaggerated demands, and do not accept challenges (out of pride), which can keep you from the right path.

From September 9 to November 13

On September 9, Mars will begin to retrograde in Aries, a sign of which is the ruling planet, and where it will begin its direct phase, on November 13.

Retrograde Mars in Aries points to difficulties in executing immediate actions little spontaneity resistance to making necessary decisions and high sensitivity to criticism.

From the evolutionary point of view, the apparent retreat of the warrior planet in the sign of Aries implies self-assertion, perseverance in the face of obstacles, calculated actions, and understanding of the adverse position of third parties.


Jupiter Retrograde

Jupiter is the planet of wisdom, expansion, wealth etc. If the Jupiter is retrograde in chart we can assume that in your past life you have not been able to achieve self development. You remained the same person throughout the entire life. So in this life you need to use your free will and need to be more active. for achieving success in life. You have to learn this lesson. You can not remain as a slave in the hand of fate anymore.It is also possible that you might have been troubled for your religious or spiritual beliefs. So you are afraid of guiding some one in this life. You do not want to be blamed for any consequences. you have become skeptical. If Jupiter’s retrograde is in your chart, you are likely to be the type of person who is always searching for ethics and values. You constantly seek truth and deeper meaning in life. Ritual becomes very important to you. You suffer from feeling the lack of spiritual fulfillment.You strive to find the right spiritual balance.

Retrograde Jupiter some time also mean that the native was probably a drunkard in his past life, a very biased and prejudiced person.This tendency come in this life too. This would be inner trait and the character which would drive the native.

To understand the effect of Retrograde Jupiter on Marriage, Read: Effect of 7th house Jupiter on Marriage.

Often person with a retrograde Jupiter is useful to revive any failed project. But this can lead problem in relationship. Because these persons always looks for something better beyond what they are having in current partnership. A problem with Jupiter retrograde people is that sometime they fail to respond to the new opportunities timely. Too much Lazyness or optimism may lead to miss obvious benefits. Retrograde Jupiter natal chart gives delay in marriage if it is connected with marriage house.


Mathematically calculate if a Planet is in Retrograde - Astronomy

The ancient Greeks developed, over a period of centuries, an elaborate cosmology. By cosmology is meant the structure and the origin of the universe. The earliest views, going back to the time of Homer and Hesiod (the 8th century BC) postulated a flat or cylindrical earth located in a hemispherical cosmos that surrounded or envelopped it. But by the time of the thinkers associated with the legendary and mythical Pythagorus (560-480BC, app.), the view became widely accepted that the earth was a sphere in a universe which was itself also fully spherical. This claim was based both on theoretical grounds -- (i) the belief that the circle or sphere was the most perfect of geometric shapes, and therefore appropriate for the earth and the cosmos, which were the most important of objects, and (ii) on practical grounds -- the observations of a ship and its mast as the vessell receded beyond the horizon. Moreover, it was possible for the ancient Greeks to calculate the diameter of the earth (and therefore its circumstances) through trigonometric considerations. This was done by Eratosthenes, a Greek living in Alexandria, Egypt, around 230BC, and (depending on how his unit of length is interpreted) was accurate to within 5% of current measurements.

Plato (427-347 BC), in his later work entitled Timaeus sketched out a theory of the origin and nature of the cosmos. The world was the creation of a "Demiurge" (from the Greek "demos" or people and "ourgos" or work) -- the most highly placed of gods, working in the "public" interest (Plato, like the ancient Greeks generally, was a polytheist -- a believer in many gods). This superior god was by nature good, and so tried to create an image of itself that was as good as possible. But the Demiurge could not create a world out of nothing its powers were more limited than the God of Genesis. The Demiurge fashioned the cosmos out of materials provided by a pre-existing "chaos", or jumble of matter, which the Demiurge organized into the four elements -- Earth, Water, Air and Fire. These formed the "body" of the cosmos, which was also endowed with a "soul". The soul of the cosmos, which Plato considered as its better or more important part, was its principle of eternal and recurring circular motion, bringing about the circular motion of the moon, planets, sun and stars.

It is presumed, though not explicitly stated by Plato, that the Earth is the center of the cosmos, with the other heavenly bodies rotating about it. (Other interpretations of Plato are possible, and we will see later that Copernicus attempted to do just this, though his was a controversial interpretation of Plato). It was Aristotle (384-322 BC) who made explicit the proposition that the earth is the center and does not move, with the sun as well as the moon, planets and stars circling it.

Aristotle's Views on the Cosmos

Aristotle based himself on various observations evident to the unaided eye (there were no telescopes in ancient Greece): (i) We see the sun "rise" and "set" each day (ii) We don't feel that the earth moves under our feet (iii) We see the stars describe a semi-circle about the horizon each night. All of these seem to imply that the earth is fixed at the center and the sun moves around it. Moreover, (iii) from a cultural point of view, it seemed appropriate that the earth -- the planet we inhabit -- be at the center, since after all, aren't humans (and for Aristotle, the Greeks) the most important part of the cosmos?

    (i) The earth as the center of the cosmos and does not move ("geocentrism")

Problems and Attempts at Solutions

    (i) At periodic times, the planets seemed to reverse their direction of motion around the earth -- which is technically known as "retrograde" motion.

The idea is the following: the mathematical theory is constrained, for metaphysical reasons, to using only spheres, the most perfect solid, and strictly uniform motion, which is the most perfect motion. But it must account for the retrograde motions of the planets, which cannot be done with just one sphere for each planet, since that sphere must turn uniformly. According to Simplicius (a commentator on Aristotle on ancient philosophy of later antiquity), Plato set his students the following problem: basing themselves only on uniform circular motions, to "save the phenomena", ie derive curves that would correspond with the observed movements of the planets (the phenomena). The project of "saving the phenomena" dominated cosmology until the time of Newton, and has the following components:

    (i) Basic assumption: All heavenly bodies move in circular motions or motions compounded out of circles. The circle (in three dimension, the sphere) is the most perfect of geometric figures, since each point on the circumference is equidisant from the center, and the only curve appropriate to the movement of the heavenly bodies.

Eudoxus (408-355 BC) was a student of Plato's who attempted a model made up of concentric spheres. Each planet was sandwiched between spheres moving at different rates in different directions, producing changes in direction equivalent to retrograde motions. But the scheme, amplified by Aristotle to include more than two spheres for each planet, was unsuccessful, as it did not explain the phenomena of varying brightness of the planets. A satisfactory solution was produced only later, through the methods of epicycles, eccentrics, and equants:

(1) Appolonios (262-190 BC) developed a first mathematical method known as "epicycles". In this method, a planet orbits a circle whose center is itself on a second circle. The first circle (the "epicycle") moves in one direction, the second circle (the "deferent") in the opposite, producing as a result motion similar to retrograde motion.

(2) A second method which gives equivalent results was that of "eccentrics", where the center of motion of a planet was at a distance from the earth (which nonetheless remained the "true" center of the cosmos as a whole). This produced planetary motion at unequal distances from the earth, helping to explain the fact that planets sometimes appear brighter and sometimes less bright, with brighter appearance interpeted as closer position. (It can be proved mathematically that the epicycle and eccentric methods give equivalent results).

(3) A third method was developed by Ptolemy (100-170 AD), a Greek speaker who lived in Alexandria, in Egypt. Technically more complicated than either of the two above, it can be understood as follows for the case of the sun: The sun moves on an earth-centered circle, but at an irregular rate determined by the condition that its rate of rotation be uniform with respect not to its own geometric center, but with respect to an equant point some distance from the geometric center. In this way, the unequal solar seasons could be explained.

The combination of these three methods (epicycle, eccentric, and equant) enabled Ptolemy to mimic in his theory the observed motions of the planets, moon and sun, including the phenomena of retrograde motion, variable brightness, and variable speed. For decades and indeed centuries the theory, contained in his book "Almagest" (Arabic for "The Greatest") enabled accurate predictions to be made.

But the theory had its weaknesses. The number of epicycles, eccentrics, and equants used was "ad hoc" -- just enough were used to obtain the desired result, but there was no way of knowing in advance how many were required. Moreover, over a thousand years (by the time of Copernicus), the predictions of the theory were out of phase with observations. We will return to this point next unit in looking at the reasons that led Copernicus to his new theory.

Views of the Cosmos of Epicurus and Lucretius

    (i) The basic units of matter are not the four or five elements of Plato and Aristotle, but much larger number of different kinds of atoms, which combine to form compounds. The atoms can neither be created nor destroyed, but the things they compose have both beginings and ends.

This view, associated with a materialist perspective on life and death, was most clearly expressed in the epic poem of Lucretius (d. 55BC), The Nature of the Universe, and represented a radical departure from the traditional views of Plato and Aristotle, which latter enjoyed great popularity and near universal assent.

Finally, it should be noted that Aristarchus, in the third century BC, proposed (in a work now lost) that the sun, not the earth was the center of the universe. He shared the view of Aristotle and Plato that the cosmos, consisting of just one world, was spherical in shape and had a definite center (unlike Epicurus and Lucretius mentioned above). But he differed from both Plato and Aristotle in exchanging the roles of sun and earth. This will be especially relevant as we examine Copernicus in the next unit.


How do you know if a planet is in retrograde?

You know when everything goes slightly kooky and you don’t know why?

A planet could be in retrograde - which means that from the vantage point of Earth, it appears to be spinning backwards.

This means the Earth is completing its orbit around the Sun quicker than the other planets outside its orbit and periodically outpaces them.

The planet being passed will appear to move backwards, and that is the retrograde period.

The most commonly-known retrograde is Mercury, and during a cycle, it is said that arguments and mishaps take place.

Here are the 2021 retrograde dates:

  • Mercury: January 30 to February 21, May 29 to June 22 and September 27 to October 23
  • Venus: December 19 to January 1, 2022
  • Jupiter: June 20 to October 18
  • Saturn: May 23 to October 22
  • Uranus: August 20 to January 1, 2022
  • Neptune: June 25 to December 1
  • Pluto: April 27 to October 6

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What are retrograde planets?

In astrology personality traits and vital events are determined by the planets. These are in constant motion and according to their properties and their position, they send us energy from one sign or another that marks our daily occurrences.

However, sometimes from planet Earth, some planets seem to stop and start moving in reverse. Since human beings discovered that the Earth revolves around the Sun and not the other way around, the explanation is much simpler: This is an optical illusion! A matter of perspective.

A planet can't move backward, but when the orbital motions start to speed up, some planets move faster than others and this difference in speed changes the positions. A practical example: If Mercury finds itself in orbit with Venus, this means that the ruling planet of Gemini and Virgo, with all of its properties, is in direct contact with the Taurus's ruling planet, with all of its qualities.

But if for example, if Venus moves more quickly than Mercury, from Earth, it will make it seem like it's moving into "retrograde", in other words, the očitno reverse movement of its orbit, and then, it will enter the previous sign as it continues on: it will move towards Aries.


Mathematically calculate if a Planet is in Retrograde - Astronomy

  • In addition to the stars, the Sun, and the Moon, there are several other objects in the sky which are easily visible at night.

    From the ancient perspective, a planeta is a point of light in the sky that moves relative to the stars, much as the Sun and Moon do.

  • With the naked eye, one can see five planets: Živo srebro, Venera, Mars, Jupiter, in Saturn.

Extra: the Sun, Moon, and planets are associated with ancient gods, and their number is the basis of our seven-day week.

  • Like the Sun and the Moon, the planets all move near the ecliptic, never being more than a few degrees away.

In the photo at the right, you can see (from top to bottom) Saturn, Venus, Jupiter, and Mercury in alignment with the recently set Sun.

    The planets move slowly enough that their positions change only slightly from night to night.

They therefore rise in the east and set in the west as part of the sky's diurnal motion.

Their speeds vary, but Mercury is the fastest, followed by Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and then Saturn, the slowest.

This reverse motion is known as retrograde motion.

Retrograde motion can last from weeks (Mercury) to months (Saturn).

5.2 Geocentric Cosmology

(Discovering the Universe, 5th ed., §2-0)

  • According to the laws of physics, there is no preference between saying that the Sun revolves around the Earth or the Earth revolves around the Sun.

Each are equally true, although one perspective may be more useful than the other for a particular purpose, as we have seen.

The former produces the retrograde motion, while the latter is primarily responsible for the direct motion.

In the adjacent animation, the arrow points towards the stars we see behind the planet watch where the arrow points as the planet moves around its epicycle.

For each planet, Ptolemy determined the sizes of its deferent and epicycle, and the speed of revolution of its epicycle and the planet itself.

By projecting his model forward in time, Ptolemy was then able to correctly predict where the planets would be located centuries into the future.

Because of the success of his model, Ptolemy's treatise on the subject, which became known as the Almagest ("the Greatest"), was the bible of astronomers through the Middle Ages.

Other astronomers tried to correct it by adding additional levels of epicycles, but the result was exceedingly complex.

5.3 Heliocentric Cosmology

(Discovering the Universe, 5th ed., §2-1)

  • An alternative to the geocentric cosmology was actually suggested a century before Hipparchus by Aristarchus (3rd C. B.C.).

The Earth also orbits the Sun, but the Moon still orbits the Earth.

Mercury and Venus (the inner planets ) have smaller orbits than the Earth, while Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn (the outer planets ) have larger orbits.

As a result, the Earth will regularly overtake and pass the outer planets, and the inner planets will do the same to the Earth.

Like one car passing another on the highway, the second car will appear to "move backward".

This is another example of parallax.

The heliocentric cosmology was forgotten for almost 2000 years, until the 16th century, when the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus rediscovered it.

He was also able to make very accurate predictions of the planets' relative distances from Sun (see the table below).

Finally, in 1543, Copernicus' book On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres appeared, shortly before he died.

The book was widely read in Europe, and gained enough support that it seriously threatened the geocentric model, which was virtually an article of faith in the Catholic Church.

5.4 Planetary Configurations

(Discovering the Universe, 5th ed., §2-1)

  • For millenia, observational astronomers have described the positions of planets and other celestial bodies using several special configurations, which can be easily understood in terms of the Copernican model.

Question : what other type of celestial angular measurement is elongation similar to?

At the right, the Sun and the red planet are in conjunction.

Question : what is the phase of the Moon when it is in conjunction with the Sun?

The image at the right shows a "triple" conjunction that occurred on April 23, 1998, between the Moon,Venus, and Jupiter.

  • When two celestial bodies are at right angles in the sky, they have an elongation of 90°, and they are said to be in quadrature .

At the right, the Sun near the western horizon and the red planet near the meridian are in quadrature.

Question : what is the phase of the Moon when it is in quadrature with the Sun?

At the right, the Sun near the western horizon and the red planet near the eastern horizon are in opposition.

Question : what is the phase of the Moon when it is in opposition to the Sun?

Maximum elongation of a planet is not readily explained using the geocentric model, but it arises naturally out of the heliocentric model, simply by assuming that the orbits of Mercury and Venus lie inside the Earth's orbit.

When an inner planet is at maximum eastern elongation it will only be visible shortly after sunset (an "evening star") when it is at maximum western elongation it will only be visible shortly before sunrise (a "morning star").

Question : as observed from Earth, what is the phase of the inner planet at each of the four positions in the picture?

In the heliocentric model, their orbits must therefore lie outside the Earth's orbit.

Question : as observed from Earth, what is the phase of the outer planet at each of the four positions in the picture?

5.5 Orbital Period

(Discovering the Universe, 5th ed., §2-1)

  • The time it takes for a planet to complete one orbit is called the orbital period of revolution , often simplified to "orbital period" or just "period".

    As can be seen in the table at the right, the farther a planet is from the Sun, the longer is its sidereal period.

The synodic period doesn't have a simple behavior, however it initially increases, and then decreases until it is slightly larger than one year.

Planet Average
Razdalja Sidereal
Period Synodic
Period Živo srebro 0.3871 AU 0.2408 y = 87.97 d 115.88 d Venera 0.7233 AU 0.6152 y = 224.70 d 583.92 d Zemlja 1.0000 AU 1.0000 y = 365.26 d ---- Mars 1.5237 AU 1.8809 y = 686.98 d 779.94 d Jupiter 5.2028 AU 11.862 y 398.9 d Saturn 9.5388 AU 29.458 y 378.1 d Uran 19.1914 AU 84.01 y 369.7 d Neptun 30.0611 AU 164.79 y 367.5 d Pluto 39.5294 AU 248.5 y 366.7 d

  • For an inner planet, the sidereal period is shorter than the synodic period, because when the planet returns to its original position the Earth has moved in its orbit, so the planet must travel further to catch up to the Earth.

In the animation at the right, Venus actually completes two sidereal periods (225 d) before it finally catches up with the Earth after the synodic period (584 d).

5.6 Tests of the Heliocentric Model

(Discovering the Universe, 5th ed., §2-2, §2-4)

  • Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601), a Danish nobleman, was renowned for his development of astronomical instruments and his use of them to make measurements of the positions of stars and planets.

His data were the most accurate available prior to the introduction of the telescope into astronomy, shortly after his death.

Amongst other discoveries, he made accurate measurements of a supernova in 1572, and showed that it was in the realm of the stars, which was believed to be unchanging.

Tycho attempted to measure this parallax, but he was unable to do so, and therefore concluded that the premise that the Earth moves around the Sun was wrong.

Actually, it was Tycho's confidence in his own measurements which was ill-founded!

As we have already seen, the stars do exhibit parallax, but because they are so far away, a telescope is required to observe it!

  • The telescope was invented by a Dutch optician late in the 16th century.

Galileo Galilei (1561-1642), a professor of mathematics at the University of Padua, heard about the telescope in 1609.

Recognizing the telescope's possibilities, Galileo immediately built one of his own, based only the sketchy details he had heard.

Galileo then improved the design of the telescope to the point where it could be used for astronomy.

Galileo quickly made several important astronomical discoveries, which were published in 1610 in his book The Starry Messenger .

Galileo noticed that Venus' phases were related to its angular diameter and elongation: it is smaller (farther away from us) at the gibbous phase and larger (closer to us) at the crescent phase, with the extremes occurring at small elongations.

The Galilean satellites were obviously orbiting Jupiter, which was contrary to a basic assumption of the geocentric model, viz. everything in the heavens orbited the Earth.

Nevertheless, in 1632 Galileo published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican , which was such a masterpiece of exposition of the heliocentric model that readers ignored the ordained conclusion.

Galileo was then brought before the Inquisition and forced to publicly recant his Dialogue was banned, and he spent the last eight years of his life under house arrest.

The ban on Galileo's Dialogue wasn't lifted until 1822, and the Vatican's censure of Galileo himself wasn't removed until 1992!

5.7 Kepler's Laws

(Discovering the Universe, 5th ed., §2-3)

  • Although the heliocentric model worked just as well as the geocentric model, to make it work over a millenium Copernicus still had to add epicycles.

Kepler didn't believe planetary orbits were necessarily circles, but could instead be other closed curves, such as the ellipse or oval.

The semimajor axis therefore describes the overall size of the ellipse.

It can be shown that a is the average distance of the ellipse from one focus.

Because c is always less than a , the value of e varies between 0 and 1.

When e = 0, c = 0, the foci coincide, and we have a circle.

When e =1, the foci approach the opposite ends of the ellipse the result is so elongated that, from one focus, both the center and the other focus are infinitely far away, forming a curve called a parabola .

Planetary orbits are ellipses, with the Sun at one focus.

    As can be seen in the table at the right, the eccentricity of the planets' orbits is generally quite small, except for Mercury and Pluto, whose orbits are noticeably elongated.

This is why circles initially worked well in describing planetary orbits.

The orbital inclination is usually quite small, except for Pluto.

Question : where did we see orbital inclination previously?

Question : why doesn't a planet usually disappear behind the Sun when they are in conjunction?

  • Kepler also noticed another characteristic of planetary motion: planets move fastest at perihelion, and slowest at aphelion.

    Kepler was able to quantify these varying speeds in what is known as Kepler's Second Law :

Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times.

Kepler's Third Law quantifies the observation that more distant orbits have longer periods:

Here, the semimajor axis a is measured in A.U. and the orbital period P is measured in years.

The graph at the right shows log P vs. log a the data falls along a straight line, with a slope of 3/2.


Poglej si posnetek: Planetet u0026 Yjet gjigant ne Galaksin ton (December 2022).