Astronomija

Koliko lun vemo, da so pastirji?

Koliko lun vemo, da so pastirji?


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Pastirske lune so naravni sateliti blizu roba planetarnega obroča, ki zaradi svoje gravitacije vplivajo na obliko in velikost obroča. Torej je mogoče, da je satelit blizu obročev, ne da bi bil v resnici pastir. Na primer, Pandora je na zunanji strani Saturnovega obroča F, vendar ni vključena v oblikovanje obroča, zato ni pastir. Na wikipediji piše, da ne moremo vedeti, ali sta Cordelia in Ophelia pastirji ali ne (čeprav tega še nisem našel), ker potrebujemo boljša opazovanja.

Koliko satelitov v Osončju vemo, da so pastirji?


Lune Osončja

Veste, koliko lun je v našem sončnem sistemu? Ali kateri planet ima največjo luno? V našem sončnem sistemu okoli planetov kroži na stotine lun, nekateri asteroidi pa celo držijo lune v svoji orbiti.

Kaj pa predstavlja luno? In zakaj imajo nekateri planeti veliko lun, drugi pa nobene? Tu je kratek pregled lun sončnega sistema.

Kaj je Luna?

Lune se lahko zelo razlikujejo po velikosti, obliki in sestavi. Torej, kaj točno predstavlja luno? Vsem je skupen en glavni dejavnik: lune krožijo okoli planeta ali asteroida.

Zaradi tega se lune imenujejo "naravni sateliti", vendar je naravni satelit lahko tudi bolj splošen izraz, ki vključuje vse, kar kroži okoli drugega telesa v vesolju, na primer Zemljo, ki kroži okoli Sonca. Izraz "luna" se uporablja izključno za razlikovanje med a planeta naravni satelit.

Koliko lun je v sončnem sistemu?

Približno 168 lun kroži okoli šestih planetov našega sončnega sistema in na stotine drugih planetov in asteroidov, ki krožijo okoli njih. Ko se tehnologija izboljšuje in naše raziskovanje širimo naprej v vesolje, bodo astronomi še naprej odkrivali nove lune, zlasti če pogledamo na zunanje planete.

Nekateri planeti, kot je Zemlja, imajo samo eno luno, drugi, kot sta Jupiter in Saturn, pa imajo več kot 60 lun! In potem je nekaj osamljenih planetov, ki sploh nimajo lune. Potopimo se v kratek uvod o lunah v našem sončnem sistemu.

Zemljina Luna, znana tudi kot "Luna", kroži okoli našega planeta in je edino mesto, na katerega so ljudje stopili v vesolje. Luna ima osrednjo vlogo v življenju na Zemlji, saj uravnava temperaturo našega planeta in vpliva na plimovanje zaradi gravitacijskega vleka.

Menda je Luna nastala pred 4,5 milijardami let, potem ko je veliko nebesno telo trčilo v Zemljo in v vesolje metalo ruševine. Ti ostanki so se zbrali, jih gravitacija povezala in sčasoma oblikovala Luno. Čeprav je to najbolj priljubljena teorija, o natančnem razumevanju, kako je nastala naša Luna, še vedno poteka razprava. Če želite izvedeti več, poskusite LUNAR, interaktivna učna izkušnja, ki združuje realističen 3D natisnjen model Zemljine lune in vrhunsko tehnologijo AR.

Mars ima dve luni, Fobos in Deimos. Obe luni sta bistveno manjši in bližje planetu kot Zemljina luna. Od Zemljine lune se razlikujejo tudi po obliki in barvi, kažejo veliko temnejšo površino in manj zaobljen videz.

Fobos se tudi počasi približuje Marsu. Astronomi verjamejo, da bi lahko v nekaj deset tisoč letih bodisi trčil v planet bodisi ga gravitacija prisilila, da je okoli planeta oblikoval obroč.

Kolikor astronomi vedo, ima Jupiter 79 lun, čeprav jih je imenovanih le 53. Jupitrove glavne lune so Ganimed, Kalisto, Io, in Europa. Z oznako Galilejski sateliti je največje Jupitrove lune leta 1610 prvi odkril italijanski astronom Galileo Galilei. Vse te lune lahko najdemo v naši Končni komplet sončnega sistema.

Saturn ima 53 potrjenih lun (imenovanih), še devet začasnih lun pa čaka na pojasnitev. Toda to ne vključuje velikih kosov kamenja in ledu v Saturnovih obročih! Glavna Saturnova luna, Titus, je tudi izjemno nenavaden, saj je edina luna z gostim ozračjem.

Uran ima 27 lun, največja pa je Oberon in Titanija, ki so bili prvič odkriti v 17. stoletju. Notranje lune Urana so večinoma sestavljene iz ledu in kamnin, medtem ko lune, ki krožijo zunaj Oberona, še niso potrjene, čeprav naj bi šlo za asteroide. Uranove lune so edinstvene zaradi dejstva, da so namesto po starodavnih mitologijah poimenovane po Shakespearovih likih.

Neptun ima v svoji orbiti 13 lun. Triton, Največja Neptunova luna, ima premer približno 1600 milj in približno velikost Plutona. Zanimivo je, da je Triton tudi edina velika luna v našem osončju z retrogradno orbito, kar pomeni, da luna kroži v nasprotni smeri vrtenja planeta.

Planeti brez lun (Merkur in Venera)

Končno pridemo do Merkurja in Venere, ki sta edina dva večja planeta brez lun! Merkur je preblizu Soncu, da bi imel luno. Sončni gravitacijski vlek bi premagal kateri koli naravni satelit Merkur, zaradi česar planet ne bi mogel ničesar zadržati v svoji orbiti. Po drugi strani pa je Venera v enem trenutku morda imela luno, čeprav astronomi verjamejo, da se je ta pred milijardami let strmoglavila na planet.

Katera je največja luna v Osončju?

Čeprav je Zemljina luna nedvomno najbolj znana, je pravzaprav peta največja v našem osončju. Jupitrova luna, Ganimed, je na vrhu seznama kot največja luna v sončnem sistemu s premerom več kot 3200 milj. Z gorami, dolinami in kraterji, Ganimed je večja od Merkurja in edina znana luna, ki ima svoje magnetno polje.

Kateri planet ima največ lun?

Poleg tega, da ima največjo luno v sončnem sistemu, Jupiter trdi tudi, da ima največ lun s približno 79 odkritimi (čeprav je trenutno imenovanih le 53).

Eden od razlogov, zakaj ima Jupiter toliko lun, je zaradi same velikosti planeta. Jupiter je s svojim premerom preko ekvatorja več kot 88.000 milj največji planet našega sončnega sistema in ima močno gravitacijsko polje, ki vpliva na velika vesoljska telesa. Če bi to postavili v perspektivo, bi se Zemlja v Jupiter prilegala 1300-krat!

Jupiter sedi tudi na zunanjem območju našega osončja, več kot 480 milijonov milj od sonca in blizu pasu asteroidov. Zaradi svojega položaja v bližini Asteroidnega pasu je Jupiter v svoji orbiti zajel veliko manjših predmetov.

Bi radi izvedeli več?

AstroReality's Končni komplet sončnega sistema vključuje 3D modele 18 različnih planetov in lun. Z napredno tehnologijo razširjene resničnosti (AR) lahko podrobno spoznate vsako luno in odkrijete nova dejstva o:

  • Zemljina luna & # 8211 najbližja našemu domu
  • Jupitrov Ganimed & # 8211 največja luna v sončnem sistemu
  • Saturnov Titan & # 8211 ena edinih lun z ozračjem

Z edinstveno in interaktivno učno izkušnjo naši 3D modeli lun odpirajo svet možnosti. Raziščite lune sončnega sistema na dlani.


Koliko lun ima Uran? Zakaj je to povezano z gekovsko mitologijo?

KOLIKO LUN JE URAN?
Planet Uran ima 27 lun.
Uran najdemo po Jupitru, odkril ga je William Herschel 13. marca 1781, kasneje pa je bilo ugotovljeno, da ima lune, ki se vrtijo okoli planeta. Njegov premer je petkrat večji od Zemlje, plinastega predmeta, podobnega Jupitru in Saturnu. Skupaj z Venero zavije v retrogradno smer, v levo.
Zakaj je to povezano z gekovsko mitologijo?
Uran: Prvobitni bog, noben starš mu ni znan. Mož Gaje, oče Koeja, Okeana, Krija, Hiperiona, Japeta, Teje, Reje, Temide, Mnemosine, Fibe, Tetide in Krona), treh Kiklopov (Brontes, Steropes in Arges). Kruti bog je vrgel več svojih sinov v Tartar (podzemlje). Gaia, njegova žena, je spodbudila upor. Njegov sin Cronos ga je pregnal, ko mu je odrezal moda. Uran je Zevs in # 8217 dedek.

Kazalo • 1 Značilnosti planeta Uran • 2 Koliko lun ima Uran in kako se imenuje • 3 koliko lun ima Uran o 3.1 Lune ali sateliti, ki so naravni luni podobnemu Uranu o 3.2 Koliko lun ima Uran, ki je skupina Portia o 3.3 Koliko lun ima Uran z negativno orbito o 3.4 Druge lune, ki pripadajo sistemu Uran

ZNAČILNOSTI PLANETE URAN

Uran je velik planet, ima obroče in okoli njega zaradi zvezdne gravitacijske sile nastane magnetno polje in zaradi tega njegova orbita glede na os nagiba tvori kot 90º.
Med misijo Voyager leta 1986 so opazili zvezde, nebesna telesa ali lune, ki so se vrtele okoli planeta Uran, odkrili pa so še 10 satelitov s spremenljivim premerom med 40 in 80 km, razen satelita Puck s premerom 160 km in ta odkritja so se nekoliko maščevala glede na to, koliko lun ima Uran.
Znotraj tega satelita v svoji sestavi temelji na skalah in ledu, saj je dobro diferencirano kamnito jedro, da vemo, koliko lun ima planet Uran.

KOLIKO LUN JE URAN?

Na planetu Uran je 27 lun, katerih imena so v literaturi tesno povezana s slavnimi zvezdniki, kot sta Shakespeare in Alexander Pope, od tam pa izhaja, koliko lun ima Uran. Od 27 lun, ki jih ima Uran, so njihova imena posledica začasne oznake in načina, kako je razdeljen s planetom Uran.

KOLIKO LUN JE URAN?

Za opis, koliko lun ima Uran, že od začetka velja, da je imel 15 satelitov ali lun, od katerih jih je 10 odkrila misija Voyager leta 1986, med prvimi 5 pa so Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titanija in Obregon, med obroči istega planeta, imenovani pastirski sateliti do Cordelije in Ofelije, ker so bili v najbolj oddaljenih obročih planeta.
Uran je planet, ki ima skupno 27 satelitov, ki so med njimi razporejeni glede na nekatere podobne značilnosti.

LUNE ALI SATELITI, NARAVNI DO LUNSKEGA URANA

Za razlikovanje lun se sprašujejo, na primer koliko lun ima Uran

MIRANDA

Miranda je ena izmed Uranovih, za katero je značilno, da imajo kanjone velike globine približno 12 milj, z edinstveno površino in eno najmanjših in najbolj ledenih lun.
Glede na to, koliko lun ima Uran, je edino znanje te lune, imenovano Miranda, povezano s tem, koliko lun ima Uran, to je leta 1948 odkril G Kuiper, kako daleč od planeta je 129780 km, premer 472 kilometrov in polna orbita okoli planeta 1414 dni.

ARIEL

W. Lassell je leta 1851 odkril razdaljo od planeta 191240 km, s premerom 1160 km, s polno orbito 2520 dni, med sateliti Uran pa je eden največjih in je na četrtem mestu.
Le 35% njene površine je znano iz sonde Voyager 2, ki je bila v vesolje izstreljena leta 1986 in je po velikosti štirinajsto mesto v sončnem sistemu.

UMBRIEL.

Gre za precej temno luno, ki jo je 24. oktobra 1851 odkril William Lassell, ravno z istim odkritjem kot Ariel, leta 1852 pa ji je John Herschel dal ime Umbriel, pokrivajo jo kraterji in so 210 km v premera, ima na svoji površini veliko kraterjev, ki veljajo za Oberonom.

TITANIJA
Je največja uranova luna, na njeni površini so majhni kraterji in veliki in zelo grobi kamni. Šteje se tudi, da je Uran IV največji med vsemi uranskimi sateliti in osmi na ravni osončja, ki ga je odkril Wiliam Herschel leta 1787, njegovo ime je zasluga ene od kraljic Shakespeareja v eni izmed njegovih iger
Ne vemo le, koliko lun ima Uran, temveč njihove značilnosti, na primer Uran z enako plastjo ledu in kamenja, ki se nahaja v skalnatem jedru in plašču, kjer ima Titanija temen del in rahlo rdečkasto barvo, ki jo povzroča endogeni procesi.

OBERON

Ima močno naseljene kraterske površine, imenujejo ga tudi Uran V, najdemo ga v najbolj oddaljenem delu planeta, 11. januarja 1787 ga je odkril tudi William Hershel, delno ga najdemo zunaj Uranove magnetosfere.
V jedru je v enakih delih sestavljen tudi iz ledu in kamnine, čeprav je v plasteh med jedrom in plaščem tekoč del.
Obstajajo tudi druge lune, in sicer koliko lun ima Uran.

KOLIKO LUN LI URAN, KOT JE SKUPINA PORTIJE

Za to skupino je značilno, da gre za satelite, ki imajo podobne orbite in fotometrične lastnosti.
CRESSIDA
Je notranji satelit Urana, ki ga je leta 1986 odkrila sonda Voyager 2, katere začasna oznaka je S / 1986 U3, in tudi kot Uran IX je Cressida del skupine Portia, kjer so Bianca, Desdemona, Juliet, Portia Rosalinda, Kupid Belinda in Perdita.
BIANCA CORDELIA
Je najbližji naravni satelit Urana, leta 1986 ga je odkril Richard J Terrile, začasno ga je označil S / 1986 U7, dobil pa je tudi ime Uran VI, glede na to, koliko lun ima Uran, deluje kot pastirski satelit, saj je v središču Urana & # 8217 epsilonski obroč.
DESDEMONA
Od koliko lun prihaja Uran, ugotavljamo, da so naravni sateliti. Desdemona je ena izmed njih, tako kot mnogi na tem planetu s sondo Voyager 2, ki je bila odkrita leta 1986 in je bila začasno označena s S / 1986 6, na enak način pa je dobila ime Uran X, katerega polmer je 32 kilometrov, in geometrijski albedo 0,08, ima videz podolgovatega telesa in njegova glavna os je usmerjena v smer Urana.
JULIET
Prav tako je še en naravni Uranov satelit z začasno oznako S / 1986 U2 in imenom Uran XI, tako kot je bil odkrit s sondo Voyager leta 1986, s polmerom 53 km, z geometrijskim albedom 0,08 kot Desdemona daje vtis, da je podolgovato telo, ki kaže na Uran v svoji glavni osi.
PORTIA
Je tudi naravni, a notranji satelit, odkrit leta 1986 in je bil začasno označen s S / 1986 U1, znan tudi kot Uran XII, katerega polmer 67 km in geometrijski albedo 0,08 je drugi največji od notranjih satelitov Uran , za njim pa Puck. Portia ima mejo pod sinhrono Uranovo orbito, ker je njena nizka orbita posledica tega, da imajo manj časa, da se popolnoma obrnejo na Uran, pri čemer se sam obrne, kar je posledica sil, ki delujejo okoli Urana, Portia se ustavi in ​​postopoma izgubi nadmorske višine.
ROSALINDA
Gre za naravni satelit, ki ga je leta 1985 odkrila sonda Voyager 2, oznaka S / 1986 U4, in z imenom Uran XII, katerega premer orbite je 36 km, z geometrijskim albedom 0,08 pa je telo skoraj sferična.
CUPID
Gre za naravni Uranov satelit, ki sta ga leta 2003 odkrila Mark Showalter in Jack J. Lissauer s pomočjo vesoljskega teleskopa Hubble, označen s S / 2003 in tudi z imenom Uran XXVII.
BELINDA
To je naravni Uranov satelit, ki ga je leta 1986 odkrila sonda Voyager 2, katere začasna oznaka je bila S / 1986 U5, in tudi kot Uran XIV je njegov polmer 45 km in geometrijski albedo 0,08, glede na sliko, ki jo Belinda daje vtis, da ima podolgovato telo, kjer je njegova glavna os usmerjena proti Uranu.
PERDITA
Je naravni Uranov satelit, prvič ga je odkrila leta 1986, ko ga je videla sonda Voyager 2, vendar ga je leta 1999 odkril Erich Karkoschka, ki je bil uradno predstavljen leta 2001.
Za leto 2003 je Perdita s Hubblovim vesoljskim teleskopom potrdila in potrdila svoj obstoj kot uranska luna, njena začasna oznaka je S / 1986 U10 in znana tudi kot Uran XXV, katerega polmer je 15 km, in geometrijski albedo 0, 08 , ona med orbitama med Belindo in Puckom.

KOLIKO LUN IMA URAN Z NEGATIVNIMI ORBITALAMI

Tu so sateliti, katerih orbita je negativna, ker je njihova smer nasprotna ali retrogradna do planeta Uran.
FRANCISCO
S povprečnim polmerom krožnice 4.276,00 km, obdobjem kroženja v dneh 266, 56 dni in s premerom 12 km, z maso in kilogrami 1,3 × 10 15

KALIBAN
Ima premer 98 km, povprečni polmer orbite 231.000 km je -579,73 dni, obdobje njegove orbite in masa v kilogramih 3 × 10 17
STEFANO
Premer 20 kilometrov, povprečni polmer orbite 8.002.000 km, orbite v dneh -676,5 in masa v kilogramih 6 × 10 15
TRINCULO
Premer je 10 km, ima povprečni polmer orbite 8751.000 km, dnevne tirnice so -758,1 in masa v kilogramih 7,5 × 10 14
SICORAX
Gre za satelit s premerom 190 km, s povprečnim polmerom orbite 12.179.000 km in s 1.228,28 dnevi polne orbite z maso v kilogramih 5,4 × 10 18
MARGARET
Povprečna orbita je 14.345.0000, polna orbita 1687, masa v kilogramih je 10 15
USPEŠNO
Prospero ima premer 20 km, povprečno orbito 16.243.000, polne orbite v dneh -1977, 29 in maso v kilogramih 2,1 × 10 16
SETEBOS
Premer 30 km, s povprečno orbito 17 501 000, polno orbito v dneh -2 234,77 km in maso 302,1 × 10 16
FERDINANDO
Je naravni satelit Urana, najbolj oddaljen in je v retrogradni orbiti, ki so ga leta 2001 odkrili Matthew J Holman, John J, Kavelaars, Dan Milisavljevic in Brett J Gladman, njegova nadomestna začasna oznaka je S / 2001 U2 in znana kot Uran XXIV, čeprav so ga dejansko opazovali med septembrom in novembrom 2001 in ponovno leta 2002, je veljal za izgubljenega.
DRUGE LUNE, KI PRIPADAJO URANSKEMU SISTEMU
PUCK
To je celinski satelit, odkrit leta 1985, katerega provincialna oznaka je S / 1985 U1, imenovan tudi Uran XV, njegova orbita je v višini obročev, približno je sferična s premerom 160 km, bila je največja od 10 satelitov v uranskem sistemu.
MAB
Gre za notranji satelit Urana, ki sta ga leta 2003 odkrila Mark R Showalter in Jack J Lissauer, ki sta začela uporabljati vesoljski teleskop Hubble in je bila začasno označena s S / 2003 U1 in tudi z imenom Uran XXVI
OPHELIA
Koliko lun ima Uran, ki jih je vse označil za večinski naravni satelit, je leta 1986 odkril tudi Richard J Terrile, oznaka Ofelije je bila S / 1986U in v zaporedju, ki ga daje uranski sistem. To je Uran VII, pastirski satelit, vendar je zunaj obroča Uran epsilon, v nasprotju s primerom Cordelia, ki je v notranjem delu epsilona obroča Uran in se prav tako šteje za pastirski satelit.


Koliko lun obstaja v vesolju?

WASHINGTON - Tukaj je zanimivo vprašanje, ki bo zagotovo stisnilo vaše prijatelje: Koliko lun je v našem sončnem sistemu?

To je redka oseba, ki ve odgovor - 63 lun in plezanje.

Leta 1997 so odkrili še dva satelita, ki sta krožila v nasprotni smeri urnega kazalca okoli Urana, sedmega sončnega planeta.

"Skoraj nepredstavljivo je, da zunaj ni več lun, & # 039 & # 039 je dejal Brett Gladman, astronom z univerze Cornell v Ithaci v New Yorku, ki je nove uranske lune odkril oktobra 1997." Skoraj vsakič napredujemo v učinkovitosti detektorja, najdemo več satelitov. & # 039 & # 039

Iskanje novih lun - pa tudi planetov, kometov, asteroidov, skal in prahu, ki zasipajo zvezdnato nebo - je del človeškega in starodavnega prizadevanja za razumevanje vesolja, v katerem živimo. S preučevanjem teh znanstveniki so se naučili veliko o tem, kako se je oblikoval sončni sistem, vključno z našo Zemljo, in kakšna bo njegova usoda.

Poleg tega, kot vedo pesniki, ljubimci in mistiki, so lune kul.

Zemlja in Pluton, deveti planet, sta edina člana naše družine soncev, ki imata po eno luno. Merkur in Venera nimata nobenega. Toda Mars ima dva, Jupiter 16, Saturn 18, Uran 17 in Neptun osem.

Tudi mali asteroid, Ida, ki plava med Marsom in Jupitrom, ima svojo hišno mesečico, imenovano Dactyl, široko le eno miljo.

Ogromni planeti - Jupiter, Saturn in Neptun - imajo toliko lun, da so podobni miniaturnim sončnim sistemom. Astronomi so jim dodelili romantična imena, izločena iz grške mitologije in Shakespearovih iger: Atlas, Pandora, Ofelija, Ariel, Julija in podobna.

Ta naraščajoča horda satelitov kaže, da so lune pogoste okoli drugih planetov v vesolju in ponujajo več potencialnih življenjskih prostorov.

V zadnjih treh letih so odkrili več kot ducat novih planetov, večinoma masivnejših od Jupitra, ki se vrtijo okoli oddaljenih zvezd. Čeprav so ti planeti prevroči za živa bitja, vsaj tako kot kateri koli na Zemlji, znanstveniki pravijo, da bi lahko imeli lune, primerne za življenje.

"Ogromni planeti ne ponujajo dobrih pogojev za življenje, toda lune okoli orjaških planetov bi lahko imele bivalna območja, & # 039 & # 039 je dejal Christopher Chyba, planetarni znanstvenik z univerze Stanford v Palo Altu v Kaliforniji." Obstajajo razlogi, da optimističen glede števila svetov, ki bi lahko podpirali življenje. & # 039 & # 039

Lune v našem sončnem sistemu so različnih velikosti, temperatur, ozračja in vedenja. Mogočni Jupiter se ponaša z največjimi in najmanjšimi odkriti sateliti doslej. Mala Leda je široka le šest milj, medtem ko je Ganimed s premerom 3.266 milj spet pol toliko velik kot luna Zemlje, ki meri 2155 milj. Naslednji največji je Saturn & # 039s Titan, širok 3.193 milj. Ganimed in Titan sta pravzaprav večja od dveh planetov, Merkurja in Plutona.

Titan je še posebej zanimiv zaradi svojega ozračja - goste meglice ogljikovodikov, ki spominja na Los Angeles v smoggy dnevu -, ki luno ogreje s toplogrednim učinkom. Astronomi verjamejo, da sončna svetloba poganja kemične reakcije na Titanu, kot tiste, ki so bile pred nastankom živih molekul na Zemlji.

"Titan je lahko model za zgodnjo Zemljo, & # 039 & # 039 je dejal Chyba. "Titan je edini primer sveta, kjer trenutno poteka prebiotična kemija. & # 039 & # 039

Čeprav nihče ne pričakuje, da bo našel življenje na Titanu, nekateri znanstveniki menijo, da ima druga Jupitrova luna Europa pod ledeno površino ogromen ocean tekoče vode, globoke od 60 do 100 milj, ki bi lahko vselil žive mikroorganizme.

"Obstajajo neverjetni dokazi, da je Evropa imela - ali pa je imela - precejšen ocean - več oceanske vode kot na Zemlji, & # 039 & # 039 je povedal Frank Carsey, znanstvenik iz NASA-jevega laboratorija za reaktivni pogon v Pasadeni, Kalif.

Voda je skupaj z virom energije in pravo mešanico kemikalij bistvena sestavina življenja. Europa ima vse tri sestavine.

Vendar na zamrznjeni skorji Europa & # 039 ne bi moglo živeti nič. Poleg tega, da je luna mrzla, je tudi v radiaciji "kot znotraj jedrskega reaktorja," je dejal Carsey.

NASA-ina vesoljska ladja Galileo je pred kratkim pobrala dokaze, da ima Callisto, še ena od Jupitrovih lun, tudi podzemni ocean.

"Do zdaj smo mislili, da je Callisto mrtva in dolgočasna luna, le kos kamenja in ledu," je dejala Margaret Kivelson, profesorica vesoljske fizike na Kalifornijski univerzi v Los Angelesu. "Ti novi podatki kažejo, da se nekaj skriva pod površino Callista & # 039s in da je nekaj lahko slani ocean. & # 039 & # 039

Za razliko od naše mrtve lune nekateri sateliti vodijo aktivno življenje.

Io, luna Jupitra, je tako vulkanska, da "žari v temi", je dejal Paul Geissler, astronom z Univerze v Arizoni v Tucsonu. NASA-ina fotografija je sredi izbruha ujela en vulkan, ki je na stotine kilometrov v vesolje ustrelil pero vročega plina.

"Io sveti zeleno, modro in rdeče, & # 039 & # 039 je dejal Geissler. "Izgleda kot božično drevo, barvito in skrivnostno. & # 039 & # 039

Lune opravljajo tudi koristne naloge, na primer pomagajo ohraniti sijoče obroče, sestavljene iz majhnih kamnin, prahu ali ledu, ki obkrožajo nekatere planete. Obroč okoli Urana pastirita dve luni, ena na obeh straneh. Štiri Jupitrove lune se držijo roba tega planeta in bledi obročki. V čudovitih obročih Saturna so lahko tudi pastirske lune, vendar jih še niso zaznali.

Naša Luna je verjetno preusmerila številne asteroide, ki bi se lahko zalomili v Zemljo in povzročili ogromno škodo. Ogromni kraterji na Luni pričajo, da služi kot ščit za naš planet.

Znanstveniki pravzaprav verjamejo, da je bila naša Luna ustvarjena, ko je Mars velik objekt trčil v Zemljo in v orbito vrgel ogromno maso staljenega materiala.

Ena od teorij, ki pojasnjuje, zakaj imajo orjaški planeti toliko satelitov, je dejal Gladman, da so bili mimoidoči predmeti ujeti v njihovih gravitacijskih poljih in niso mogli ubežati.

"To je vsa starodavna zgodovina, že na začetku sončnega sistema," je dejal Gladman.

(UREDNIKI: ZAČNITE NEOBVEZNO TRIM)

Notranji planeti, od Merkurja do Marsa, so se oblikovali drugače. Po besedah ​​Douglasa Hamiltona, astronoma z Univerze v Marylandu v College Parku, je v zgodnjih letih verjetno blizu planetov krožilo veliko planetov velikosti živega srebra.

"Nekaj ​​deset do nekaj sto teh protoplanetov se je združilo v velikanskih trkih, dokler niso ostali samo štirje (notranji) planeti in Luna," je dejal Hamilton.

Prve lune okoli drugega planeta je 7. januarja 1610 odkril Galileo Galilei (CQ), renesančni astronom. Njegov primitivni teleskop je Jupitru izbral štiri velike satelite - Io, Evropo, Ganimed in Kalisto.

Štiri največje lune okoli Saturna - Iapetus, Rhea, Dione in Tethys - so bile odkrite med letoma 1671 in 1684, stoletje kasneje pa sta jim sledila Titanija in Oberon okoli Urana. Največja luna Neptuna, Triton, ni bila zaznana do leta 1846 in par Mars & # 039, Deimos in Phobos, leta 1877.

Lunin popis se je v zadnjih 20 letih resnično povečal, saj je NASA poslala vesoljska plovila, ki so plula po vseh planetih, razen Plutona.

Najnovejše odkritje je bilo 27. oktobra 1997, ko je Gladman opazil dve pikici, ki sta sledili Uranu po nebu. Observatoriji v Čilu in Avstraliji so najdbe potrdili lani marca. Luni, široki 20 in 40 kilometrov, sta bili predhodno imenovani Caliban in Sycorax.

(UREDNIKI: ZGODBA SE LAHKO KONČA TUKAJ)

Poleg 63 lun so astronomi v zadnjih šestih letih zaznali še 64 miniaturnih planetov, ki jih včasih imenujejo tudi planetizmi, ki plujejo v oddaljenih predelih onstran Neptuna. Teh predmetov Kuiperjevega pasu, imenovanih po nizozemskem astronomu Gerardu Kuiperju, je verjetno na deset tisoče, a so tako majhni - približno 60 milj široki - in tako oddaljeni, da jih je zelo težko videti.

Raziskovanje lun se nadaljuje: Nedavni preleti naše Lune so odkrili dokaze o vodi, železu in magnetnih poljih. Vesoljsko plovilo Galileo zbira podrobnejše slike satelitov Jupiter & # 039s. NASA-ina misija Cassini na Saturn bo sondo spustila na površje Titana leta 2004. Obisk Plutona in njegove lune Charon je predviden v začetku naslednjega stoletja. Vesoljska agencija načrtuje robotski pristanek na Evropi, da bi potrdila, da ima ocean.

"Pričakujemo, da bomo nekega dne prodrli v ocean Evrope, & # 039 & # 039 je povedal Roger Kern, biolog laboratorija za reaktivni pogon. »Pred kratkim je bilo to bolj domiselno kot resnično. Zdaj je bolj resnično kot domiselno. & # 039 & # 039


Koliko lun imamo?

Koliko lun imamo? Samo eno, kajne? NAPAK !! No, v briljantnem, čeprav kratkem obdobju je imela Zemlja dve luni. 23. februarja 2020 je bil v orbiti okoli Zemlje odkrit manjši asteroid.

Ta asteroid, ki sta ga v Observatoriju Mount Lemmon odkrila Theodore Pruyne in Kacper Wierzchoś, je bil imenovan 2020 CD3. Ta majhna luna je približno velika kot kavč s premerom 6ft - 11ft. A žal se morajo vse dobre stvari končati in tako mini lune ni več med nami. 2020 CD3 je verjetno zapustil našo orbito 7. marca.

& # 8220 Ni dvoma, da je bil v začetku februarja še vedno v orbiti okoli Zemlje, in zdaj ni nobenega dvoma, ko je v orbiti okoli sonca, & # 8221 je izjavil Bill Gray, razvijalec astronomske programske opreme.

Vir slike / CBC KIDS NEWS

Kaj pa je točno? Prvotno so astronomi mislili, da je nova luna lahko kos vesoljske smeti, ki je bil del rakete zavržen po uspešnem izstrelitvi. Dokončno rečeno, astronomi so morali z močnimi teleskopi preučevati sončno svetlobo, ki se odbija od predmeta, kar lahko od daleč razkrije njegovo sestavo.

Obstaja vsaj majhna verjetnost, da bi lahko šlo za kos naše lune, ki se je po udarcu odlomil, je domneval en astronom. Toda zadnja opazovanja kažejo, da je objekt verjetno asteroid, eden izmed mnogih, ki plavajo okoli Zemlje.

& # 8220To je le naključen pojav, & # 8221 je dejala Kat Volk, planetarna znanstvenica z Univerze v Arizoni in Lunarni in planetarni laboratorij. & # 8220Vstopiti morajo le s pravo hitrostjo in pravim kotom. Velika večina stvari, ki piha na Zemlji, ni niti začasno ujeta v orbito, temveč kar naprej pihajo & # 8221.

Torej, kako se je to zgodilo? & # 8220 Majhne predmete, kot je 2020 CD3, pogosto potegnejo blizu Zemlje, & # 8221 je pojasnila Pruyne. & # 8220 To se zgodi, ko se Zemlja seka dovolj blizu asteroidov v orbiti do Sonca. Če je objekt dovolj blizu Zemlje, bo gravitacija Zemlje potegnila predmete in spremenila orbito predmeta.

Pogosto se to le nekoliko spremeni in kroži ter ga pošlje v drugo smer ali pa ga pripelje blizu Zemlje, ne da bi vplivalo na naš planet, & # 8221 je dejal. & # 8220Zajeti objekti so začasno redki, razlog pa je, da je treba z gravitacijskim vlečenjem Zemlje potegniti zelo natančno hitrost in smer in ne udariti ali odleteti v novo smer, & # 8221 dodala Pruyne .

Ne glede na to, kako osupljivo se to sliši, to ni prva mini luna na Zemlji. Od 19. stoletja so znanstveniki resnično iskali več lun. Kljub temu je bila možnost predmet tudi številnih dvomljivih neznanstvenih ugibanj, pa tudi več verjetnih potegavščin. Prvi možni začasni satelit je bil opažen leta 1913 med prvo meteorno povorko.

Od takrat je prišlo do navala odkritij, najbolj opazno je bilo leta 2006. Drugi majhni naravni predmeti v orbiti okoli Sonca lahko za kratek čas vstopijo v območje okoli Zemlje in postanejo začasni naravni sateliti. Do danes so bili edini potrjeni primeri 2006 RH120 v zemeljski orbiti v letih 2006 in 2007 in 2020 CD3 v zemeljski orbiti med letoma 2018 in 2020.


Nekaj ​​dodatnih kazalcev na osnovi lune

Omenili smo že, da je Fobos in Deimos najbolj verjetno opaziti med opozicijo, vendar obstaja nekaj dodatnih napotkov, ki vam lahko pomagajo pri iskanju obeh.

Položaj lun je vse in največja verjetnost, da jih boste morali videti, je, ko so kateri od svojih velikonočnih in zahodnih raztezkov, ko so najbolj oddaljeni od Marsa.

Finding out when that will be has never been easier thanks to free software like Stellarium which has been designed to recreate a planetarium on your home computer and will tell you the times and dates, during the opposition, when both moons are in the optimal position for you to train your telescope on them.

You can also increase your chances of seeing either, or both, Phobos or Deimos by fitting an occulting bar (which will occlude Mars from the lens of your telescope) to your telescope and by using a blue filter which will reduce the planetary glare from Mars and make it far easier to see its moons.

So while it might be difficult to observe Phobos and Deimos, it’s far from impossible. It just takes a little patience and know-how, both of which will be rewarded when the Red Planets’ moons swing into view.


Saturn now boasts Solar System’s most known moons: 82

Twenty newly discovered moons orbiting Saturn fit into three groupings of previously known satellites. Saturn’s total of 82 known moons is a new solar system record. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute (Saturn), Paolo Sartorio/Shutterstock (background stars)

A team led by Carnegie astronomer Scott Sheppard has discovered 20 new moons orbiting Saturn, pushing the ringed planet’s total to a record 82 – three more than Jupiter’s currently known 79.

Each of the newly discovered moons has a diameter of about five kilometres (3 miles) and 17 of them orbit Saturn in the a retrograde direction opposite the planet’s rotation. The other three orbit in the same prograde direction as Saturn.

The retrograde moons orbit at roughly the same inclination, or tilt, indicating they may be fragments of a larger body that broke apart in the distant past. Likewise, two of the newly found prograde moons fit in with an already known group sharing an orbital tilt of about 46 degrees. They, too, may have once been part of a larger moon.

The third newly found prograde moon orbits at an inclination of 36 degrees, similar to a group of inner prograde satellites. This one, however, is much farther from Saturn than any of the others.

“Studying the orbits of these moons can reveal their origins, as well as information about the conditions surrounding Saturn at the time of its formation,” Sheppard said. “This kind of grouping of outer moons is also seen around Jupiter, indicating violent collisions occurred between moons in the Saturnian system or with outside objects such as passing asteroids or comets.”

The new moons were discovered by Sheppard, David Jewiutt of UCLA and Jan Kleyna of the University of Hawaii using the Subaru telescope atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii.

“Using some of the largest telescopes in the world, we are now completing the inventory of small moons around the giant planets,” said Sheppard. “They play a crucial role in helping us determine how our Solar System’s planets formed and evolved.”

Sheppard discovered 12 new moons orbiting Jupiter last year and invited the public to help name five of them. Because of an enthusiastic response, he has organised a similar contest to come up with names of for Saturn’s newly discovered satellites.


Does Earth Have Many Tiny Moons?

Look up in a clear night sky. How many moons do you see? Chances are, you’re only going to count to one. Admittedly, if you count any higher and you’re not alone, you may get some funny looks cast in your direction. But even though you may not be able to actually see them, there may very well biti more moons out there orbiting our planet.

For the time being, anyway.

Today, Earth has one major moon in orbit around it. (Technically the Earth-Moon system orbits around a common center of gravity, called the barycenter, but that’s splitting hairs for the purpose of this story.) At one time Earth may have had two large moons until the smaller eventually collided into the larger, creating the rugged lump we now call the farside highlands. But, that was 4 billion years ago and again not what’s being referred to here.

Right now, at his moment, Earth may very well have more than the one moon we see in the night sky. Surprise.

Of course, it would be a very small moon. Perhaps no more than a meter across. But a moon nonetheless. And there could even be others – many others – much smaller than that. Little bits of solar system leftovers, orbiting our planet even farther out than the Moon we all know and love, coming and going in short-lived flings with Earth without anyone even knowing.

This is what has been suggested by researcher Mikael Granvik of the University of Helsinki in Finland. He and his colleagues have created computer simulations of asteroids believed to be occupying the inner solar system, and what the chances are that any number of them could be captured into Earth orbit at any given time.

Orbit of 2006 RH120, a confirmed TCO identified in 2006.

The team’s results, posted Dec. 20 in the science journal Icarus, claim it’s very likely that small asteroids would be temporarily captured into orbit (becoming TCOs, or temporarily captured objects) on a regular basis, each spending about nine months in up to three revolutions around Earth before heading off again.

Some objects, though, might hang around even longer… in the team’s simulations one TCO remained in orbit for 900 years.

“There are lots of asteroids in the solar system, so chances for the Earth to capture one at any time is, in a sense, not surprising,” said co-author Jeremie Vauballion, an astronomer at the Paris Observatory.

In fact, the team suspects that there’s most likely a TCO out there right now, perhaps a meter or so wide, orbiting between 5 and 10 times the distance between Earth and the Moon. And there could be a thousand smaller ones as well, up to 10 centimeters wide.

So if these moons are indeed out there, why don’t we know about them?

Put simply, they are too small, too far, and too dark.

At that distance an object the size of a writing desk is virtually undetectable with the instruments we have now.. especially if we don’t even know exactly where to look. But in the future the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) may, once completed, be able to spot these tiny satellites with its 3200-megapixel camera.

Once spotted, TCOs could become targets of exploration. After all, they are asteroids that have come to us, which would make investigation all the easier – not to mention cheaper – much more so than traveling to and back from the main asteroid belt.

“The price of the mission would actually be pretty small,” Granvik said. And that, of course, makes the chances of such a mission getting approved all the better.


How many moons do we know are shepherds? - astronomija

Ellen White's Vision on Astronomy

In November, 1846, the newly married couple, James and Ellen White, attended a conference in Topsham . Joseph Bates had come up from New Bedford and was present.
Ellen White wrote:
The Spirit of God rested upon us in Brother C.'s humble dwelling, and I was wrapt in a vision of God's glory, and for the first time had a view of other planets. After I came out of vision I related what I had seen.

Actually, during the vision, wholly unbeknown to her, she spoke of what was passing before her. J. N. Loughborough recounted in print the description of the meeting as Bates told it to him:

Mrs. White, while in vision, began to talk about the stars, giving a glowing description of rosy-tinted belts which she saw across the surface of some planet, and added, "I see four moons."

"Oh," said Elder Bates, "she is viewing Jupiter!" Then having made motions as though traveling through space, she began giving a description of belts and rings in their ever-varying beauty, and said, "I see seven moons."

Elder Bates exclaimed, "She is describing Saturn."

Next came the description of Uranus, with its six moons then a wonderful description of the "opening heavens," [Orion nepula] with its glory, calling it an opening into a region more enlightened. Elder Bates said that her description far surpassed any account of the opening heavens he had ever read from any author.

While she was talking and still in vision, he arose to his feet, and exclaimed, "O how I wish Lord John Rosse was here tonight!" Elder White inquired, "Who is Lord John Rosse?"

"Oh," said Elder Bates, "he is the great English astronomer. I wish he was here to hear that woman talk astronomy, and to hear that description of the 'opening heavens.' It is ahead of anything I ever read on the subject."--GSAM, p. 258.

Ellen White and Saturn and Jupiter.

Did Ellen White "trick Captain Bates with her vision"?
Did she forget how many moons? Was she just quoting common knowledge?
Did she say there was life on Saturn?

The charge we often hear is that her vision was simply "revealing" common knowledge obtainable from Bates himself or from a book on astronomy, and that she perpetrated this hoax "to win Elder Bates."

It is true that this vision convinced Joseph Bates, a sea captain, who till then did NOT believe Ellen White's visions came from God, that he had been wrong in his disbelief. He was convinced after this encounter that she was NOT a fraud. We know from the early records that Bates was extremely cautious about accepting her claims. He was very skeptical.

He wrote of his feelings about the visions:
"I felt alarmed and tried exceedingly, and for a long time unwilling to believe that it was anything more than that was produced by a protracted debilitated state of her body. I therefore sought opportunities in presence of others, when her mind seemed freed, to question, and cross-question her, and her friends which accompanied her, especially her elder sister (Sarah) to get if possible at the truth." WLF p.21

Several people also attested to the fact that EGW, in 1846, had NEVER "studied or otherwise received knowledge" in the field of astronomy.

To now turn around and say that the skeptical Bates, upon hearing EGW recite back to him in vision the very things which he supposedly had told her, would react with great astonishment and be overwhelmingly convinced for all time that her vision is from God, would be stretching the credibility of Bates. No, Bates was not that gullible— he believed because he was impressed by something that could not be so easily explained away as modern critics would have us believe.

Loughborough gives this account:
"Elder Bates said that her description far surpassed any account of the opening heavens, he had ever read from any author. While she was talking and still in vision, he arose to his feet, and exclaimed, "O how I wish Lord John Rosse was here tonight! Elder White inquired, "Who is Lord John Rosse?" Oh", said Elder Bates, "he is the great English astronomer. I wish he was here to hear this woman talk astronomy, and to hear that description of the "opening heavens." It is ahead of anything I ever read on the subject." From that evening Elder Bates became fully satisfied that the visions of Mrs. White were outside of her knowledge and control." (Rise and Progress of Seventh-day Adventists p. 258-259)

It is clear that Mrs. White experienced something far greater than something that came due to her head injury and which had to do with things she was pondering, things with which she was thinking about that came up in a theological debate among the early SDA's. This was something "ahead of anything" Bates himself, the student of astronomy, had read. Where did she get this information and power of description. Mrs. White was only nineteen, in feeble health, and had only a grade three education, yet she awed and impressed the confessedly skeptical Bates by the descriptions of the heavens.

BUT SHE DID NOT GET THE MOONS RIGHT say the critics.

First of all, EGW did not name ANY planet.
In her account she mentions no names. It was Bates who named the planets. If Ellen White was WRONG, how is it that Bates recognized the planets she was describing while she was in vision?

Back to Loughborough's work, on page 258
R "While in vision, (EGW) began to talk about the stars, giving a glowing description of the rosy- tinted belts which she saw across the surface of some planet, and added, "I see four moons."
"Oh," said Elder Bates, "she is viewing Jupiter." Then, having made motions as though traveling she began giving descriptions of belts and rings in their ever-varying beauty, and said, "I see seven moons," "She is describing Saturn," declared Bates."

Now remember, Bates is honestly skeptical, and because of his study of astronomy he would be most easily reached by something he is familiar with. Now if God gave Ellen White that vision to convict Bates, what would God show EGW? If the Lord caused her to see far beyond the greatest telescope of that time and she started describing many more moons, would not her description in vision result only in filling Bates' mind with doubt and confirming him in his skepticism?

If this vision was given to impress the mind of the astronomically minded Bates, isn't the vision tailored to do just that? It was within the limits of 1847 astonomical knowledge, yet so surpassingly vivid and detailed as to be beyond and ahead of any description Bates had yet read. Besides she did not say that there were ONLY four moons that circled Jupiter", nor did she say there were ONLY seven moons, etc. Did God give Biblical prophets the number of the stars and every detail— no! Are they frauds? No!

EGW's first vision of 1846 was an accurate (yet advanced) though not as advanced as what scientists have found today, depiction of this solar system-- of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. It was like God showed her through a telescope that was slightly advanced for her day-- a view of the solar system. That is what Bate's and James White's documented reaction shows. James White wrote in 1847 about the vision Ellen had seen of the planets in our solar system:
"At our conference in Topsham, Maine, last Nov., Ellen had a vision of the handy works of God. She was guided to the planets Jupiter, Saturn, and I think one more. After she came out of vision, she could give a clear description of their Moons, etc. It is well known, that she knew nothing of astronomy, and could not answer one question in relation to the planets, before she had this vision." A Word to the Little Flock, p. 22 Now please note-- in none of the above accounts is ANYTHING mentioned that even hints Ellen White saw people living on any of those planets which she saw in that vision.

WHAT ABOUT PEOPLE LIVING ON SATURN

"The Lord has given me a view of other worlds. Wings were given me, and an angel attended me from the city to a place that was all bright and glorious. The grass of the place was living green and the birds there warbled a sweet song. The inhabitants..were noble, majestic and lovely. . there countenances beamed with holy joy. Then I saw two trees. "None in this place have tasted of the forbidden tree. Then I was taken to a world with seven moons. There I saw good old Enoch, who had been translated. . He moved about the place as if perfectly at home. I begged my attending angel to let me remain in that place. I could not bear the thought of coming back to this dark world. ..Then the angel said, You must go back and if faithful, you. shall have the privilege of visiting all the worlds and viewing the handiwork of God."

A certain Mrs. M.C. Truesdail, wrote about her memories of EGW in 1891.
Take into consideration that this is 40 some years after the event. She wrote, that EGW had a vision of the planetary world and after counting aloud the moons of Jupiter, and soon after those of Saturn, gave a beautiful description. Then she said,' "The inhabitants are a tall, majestic people.

But just because this woman combined the words which Bates uttered during the vision in 1846 with words from Early Writings, which come from a completely different vision, does not prove this is what Ellen White saw and said, for she never said there were people on Saturn. Yet upon this one witness, Ellen White is to be called a fraud? For one person is precisely the only evidence upon which the critics base their planetary accusations against Ellen White that people live on Saturn or Jupiter.

Mrs. White did not even write out the vision which convinced Bates that she was a prophet, it is not the same vision which is recorded in Early Writings page 38-39. All she herself says of that early vision is this:

"Bro. J. Bates, did not then fully believe that my visions were of God. I was wrapt in a vision of God's glory, and FOR THE FIRST TIME (meaning she had more later) had a view of other planets. After I came out of vision I related what I had seen. Bro. Bates asked if I had studied astronomy. I told him I had no recollection of ever looking into any astronomy. Said he, "This is of the Lord." Spiritual Gifts vol. 2 p. 83

The accusations come by combining two separate and different visions, and treating them as one:

1. The vision (from the distance) of the planets Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus which convinced Bates her visions were true.

2. A second vision (where Ellen is on the other planets themselves) and sees the grass, trees, birds, and people living there. No one knows where those planets are. That is not revealed.

The scripture speaks of other worlds:

Heb. 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds

Heb. 11:3 Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.

Why wouldn't God have other unfallen worlds which He created, in this universe, worlds that are inhabitated. Surely God did not create the vast universe without inhabitants. And why won't these be tall majestic inhabitants

But, remember, we have no direct record of Ellen White ever saying that Jupiter or Saturn, was inhabited. That is based only on what someone stated more than thirty years later.


Answers

the tilt of the planet might wobble… changing the seasons

talljasperman ( 21875 />) “Great Answer” ( 1 />)

an incredible hot Earth, tidal forces from the two moons tugging on the Earth could cause so much friction within the planet that it would be a hot steamy jungle.

earthduzt ( 3231 />) “Great Answer” ( 1 />)

Awesome Mach storms, according to the Anne McCaffrey “Killashandra Ree” series. Fearfully cold weather, and a third pole according to the MZB “Darkover” series.

Trillian ( 21116 />) “Great Answer” ( 1 />)

Do both have a gravitational pull?

rowenaz ( 2436 />) “Great Answer” ( 0 />)

Of course it does. How could an orbiting object ne have a gravitational pull? Doesn’t everything that has mass have a gravitational pull?

Seek ( 34769 />) “Great Answer” ( 1 />)

/me is waiting with ‘bated breath for @wundayatta’s response. ^_^

Seek ( 34769 />) “Great Answer” ( 2 />)

The tides would be much more complex and perhaps less predictable. If the two moons were on the same side of the earth, the tides would be very high. If they were on opposite sides, the tides would be smaller—how much smaller depends on the relative masses of the moons. Anyway, you could probably write any kind of weird tide you wanted with a double moon system.

There there’s the light at night. Apparently, tomatoes ripen more under a full moon. Without a full moon, they won’t ripen as much. With two moons, each being full at different times, you might have a much different tomato yield.

And tomatoes aren’t the only flora (or indeed, fauna) that are affected by the light of the moon. You’d have to research it, but I’m sure you’d find a lot of interesting moonlight effects.

If your story is a bit magical, then imagine the werewolf on a double full moon! Or what would happen to vampires? Would their movement be inhibited on double full moons nearly as much as during the day? Would this make them even more frantically active on double new moons? They myths about double night, as it might be called, could be an interesting thing to play with.

Have you ever read Asimov’s “Nightfall?” If not, you should. The planet is in a six moon system where full dark night happens once every two thousand years. This has a profound effect on the civilization, as everyone freaks out and goes absolutely apeshit each time it happens. So much so, that civilization falls, and has to be rebuilt over the next 2000 years, only to be destroyed again.

And the moons could not always be opposite each other, unless they were the same mass and somehow were stable in opposite orbits. I’m not sure, but I don’t think that would be possible. There’s something called the “three body problem.” I’m not sure what it is, but since they are always looking for a solution, it seems to me that it might be something about how impossible it is to solve such a problem. Maybe you can never predict the orbits in a system with three bodies.

Perhaps the culture knows this, and is constantly wondering when doom will fall, as the system destroys itself.

[Edit]
Yup: here’s what wikipedia has to say about the three body problem. It seems to me that such systems (which are everywhere) are inherently unstable. Your planet would probably be worse off than us when we consider the Earth, the Moon, and the Sun.

wundayatta ( 58638 />) “Great Answer” ( 5 />)

well, it would have some effect on the tides of the ocean for a start. it would probably change evolution to some degree too, if its big enough to reflect light from the sun causing it to be lighter at night then we maybe would have more nocturnal animals, and maybe less animals with enhanced vision, such as cats. maybe there would be no bats either.

and as a side note, the earth does already have two moons, the second one is called cruithne

poisonedantidote ( 21648 />) “Great Answer” ( 2 />)

Don’t discount the impact on the females of those species who have a menstrual cycle.

CaptainHarley ( 22432 />) “Great Answer” ( 0 />)

Mass and orbital rotation means a lot when it comes to gravitational pull. The moon is even moving away from us. How close the bodies are to the planet, of course, have a large effect, so you can make all sorts of effects, or very few and blame it on the distance.

@wundayatta has a really good point about the biological effects of the moon on our planet. Did you know that a woman who’s menstrual cycle is closest to the moon’s cycle is more fertile. http://www.athenainstitute.com/lunarmpl.html
There are insects, nocturnal animals, sea creatures, they all get triggered for mating, feeding, migrating… by the moon. You could add a certain ‘duality’ to the animal kindom on your plant… ‘Team Luna’ and ‘Team Mini-moon’ We are also losing our moon. Darwin predicted it, NASA confirmed. 2 inches a year.

As for tides, it’s a pull-me, pull-you scenario. The moon pulls on the water, but the earth spins at a higher rate than the moon goes around the earth, so the ‘bulge’ of water rises in front of the moon, and this bulge actually pulls on the moon, effecting it’s orbit.

I found a pretty neat article on ‘What would earth be like if there was no moon.’ which should give you some cool ideas, too. http://www.astrosociety.org/education/publications/tnl/33/33.html

cazzie ( 24516 />) “Great Answer” ( 2 />)

Well, it wouldn’t really depend upon the size, but the mass and distance. The two moons would have to be in different orbits, otherwise they’d eventually crash. Otherwise, the above posters have it right in that there would be more complicated tides, but more importantly for us, there would probably be even more active plate techtonics with increased earthquake and volcano activity.

Rarebear ( 25162 />) “Great Answer” ( 1 />)

The three body problem is a mathematical problem that involves the calculation of orbits using classical Newtonian mechanics. It doesn’t necesarily suggest there will be a problem with stability in the system – it applies just as much to the whole solar system as it does to the Jovian satellite system. It’s just a right bugger to calculate the orbits of three or more items in a system when they are gravitationally interacting.

There are all sorts of interesting avenues to explore from there being two moons though – in a stable system, the moons may be in orbital resonance – giving predictable tides and other effects, and the system would have Lagrange points and Trojan-like microsatellites. The two moons could even shepherd a ring system, which could arise from the interactions of the orbiting bodies and the gravity of the parent planet with the defunct 3rd moon.

the100thmonkey ( 11255 />) “Great Answer” ( 2 />)

@the100thmonkey Ah! That Trojan thing sounds just about perfect.

Can I describe how hard it is to make (pseudo)science fit mythology, as opposed to writing mythology to fit the science? Oi vey.

So, according to that theory, I could have a considerably smaller moon sharing orbit with the “normal” moon, without worrying about the impending death and destruction of lunar collision. And the goddess has a son. Yay.

I also like the idea of the Laplace redonance (in the orbital resonance link), thought that would require three moons, wouldn’t it? And that would wreak some serious havoc on tides.

Plate tectonics… that’s actually really helpful. I needed an excuse for a few “drifting” landmasses.

Seek ( 34769 />) “Great Answer” ( 0 />)

Sorry, this is off topic but I remember reading a story about a planet with multiple suns which had one long and endless day. Eventually all the suns set at the same time and the inhabitants thought it was the end of the world. I can’t remember the title.

flutherother ( 31105 />) “Great Answer” ( 0 />)

@flutherother The title is Nightfall by Isaac Asimov
Go to here if you want to have it read to you in podcast form. It’s a really good rendition.
http://www.escapepod.org/2007/04/05/ep100-nightfall/

Rarebear ( 25162 />) “Great Answer” ( 1 />)

You are a genius!! Thank you.

flutherother ( 31105 />) “Great Answer” ( 1 />)

Dear Mods: I hereby determine all hypothetical celestial Science-Fiction discussion as “On Topic” for purposes of this thread. Thank you, @Seek_Kolinahr

Seek ( 34769 />) “Great Answer” ( 2 />)

@flutherother I already mentioned Nightfall above. It really is worth reading the thread.

wundayatta ( 58638 />) “Great Answer” ( 0 />)

@wundayatta @the100thmonkey… I wish I could sit down with you two and brainstorm. Maybe with @mattbrowne as well. I’m going crazy trying to figure all this out – the axis of the planet, the angle and speed at which the moons orbit (so I don’t have a solar eclipse every three days), how long a day should be… A lesser being would just say “It works because it’s fantasy” and do whatever they want, but I have to have my solar system make something vaguely resembling sense – even if the explanation is only in my notes. Dammit.

Seek ( 34769 />) “Great Answer” ( 0 />)

Build a model. See how it works. Here’s a unix program for modeling the paths of stars. Here are some other calculators. The “elliptical”: orbit one looks like it could be helpful—no, the link leads nowhere, but this place looks like it was built for science fiction writers.

wundayatta ( 58638 />) “Great Answer” ( 1 />)

wundayatta Sorry, didn’t realise you had mentioned Nightfall earlier. Another idea I had, which is my own as far as I know, was for a new planet in our solar system. It is unknown as it lies an the far side of the sun where we can never see it. Intriguingly it lies at the same distance from the sun as the Earth and has the same good chances of supporting life. It’s position makes it difficult for us to reach. As to how many moons it has, well we don’t know yet and will its inhabitants, if it has any, discover us before we discover them?

flutherother ( 31105 />) “Great Answer” ( 0 />)