Astronomija

Kako naj vem, kaj bom lahko videl?

Kako naj vem, kaj bom lahko videl?


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Tako živim v predmestju v Viktoriji v Avstraliji. Manj kot uro stran od mesta in mislim, da je malo svetlobnega onesnaženja, saj na svojem dvorišču verjetno vidim le približno 15 - 20 zvezd (verjetno manj), zanima me, kakšne so te zvezde in kaj " Bom videl, ko dobim ta teleskop:

https://www.opticscentral.com.au/saxon-707az2-refractor-telescope.html?___SID=U#.WXQNMtN940r

To se bo slišalo neumno, ampak kako naj vem, kdaj na nebu obstajajo planeti, ki jih vidim? Mislim, da v resnici še nisem videl planeta razen Lune.

Hvala vam.


Prvič, če opazujete planete, ne skrbite preveč zaradi svetlobnega onesnaženja. Planeti so nekateri najsvetlejši predmeti na nebu in nekatere (zlasti Jupiter) je mogoče zlahka opazovati tudi s polno Luno - polna Luna (skupaj s Soncem!) Največ prispeva k svetlobnemu onesnaženju!

Oglejte si seznam najsvetlejših zvezd (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_brightest_stars), ki vsebuje tudi ocene svetlosti Sonca, Lune in večjih planetov. Z Zemlje običajno ni zvezd, svetlejših od Venere, Jupitra, Marsa in Merkurja, nekaj dragocenejših pa je svetlejših od Saturna. Predlagam, da ste verjetno videli veliko planetov - pa jih preprosto niste prepoznali.

+1 za Stellarium (http://www.stellarium.org/en_GB/). Je brezplačen, intuitiven in zelo vizualen. Lahko postavite lokalno lokacijo za ogled in vam omogoča pogled za kateri koli čas noči, prihodnost ali preteklost. V času pisanja (23. julija 2017) bi morala biti Saturn in Jupiter videti dobro za južno poloblo. To se vrti skozi celo leto in pri tem vam bo pomagal Stellarium.

V spletu poiščite »nebo ponoči na južni polobli« in našli boste številne primere spletnih mest z poudarki, ki jih morate iskati, ko pridete ven.

Nekaj ​​končnih predlogov:

  • Dovolite si dovolj časa, da se vaše oči prilagodijo temi - za začetek potrebujem dobrih 20-30 minut. Takrat boste videli še veliko zvezd
  • Zavedajte se, da lahko lokalni pogoji (hiše / drevesa itd.) Omejujejo vidnost stvari blizu obzorja. V vsakem primeru se vam zdi, da so predmeti nad glavo veliko bolj jasni
  • Refraktorji (vključno z vašimi) so opremljeni z "montažno prizmo". Kljub imenu resnična korist ni v tem, da sliko vidite pravilno navzgor (to v astronomiji v resnici ni problem), prizma pa vam omogoča samo bolj smiseln in udoben položaj gledanja - razumeli boste, ko boste pojdi naprej
  • Ne omejujte se na planete. Ko se odpravite, spoznajte tudi predmete na globokem nebu. Na primer, južna polobla ima dostop do znamenitih Magelenskih oblakov, ki jih s severne poloble ne vidimo!

Astronomija brez teleskopa & # 8211 Predpostavke

Trenutni standardni model vesolja, Lambda-hladna temna snov, predpostavlja, da se vesolje širi v skladu z geometrijskim izrazom Lambda - ki predstavlja kozmološko konstanto, uporabljeno v Einsteinovi splošni relativnosti. Lahko bi domnevali, da Lambda predstavlja temno energijo, skrivnostno silo, ki poganja tisto, za kar zdaj vemo, da je pospešeno širjenje prostora-časa. Nato se domneva, da je hladna temna snov oder, ki je osnova za porazdelitev vidne snovi v velikem obsegu po vesolju.

Toda za kakršen koli razumen poskus modeliranja, kako je vesolje & # 8211 in kako se je odvijalo v preteklosti in se bo odvijalo v prihodnosti, moramo najprej domnevati, da je povsod približno enako.

Temu včasih rečejo kozmološko načelo, ki pravi, da so lastnosti vesolja pri gledanju v dovolj velikem obsegu enake za vse opazovalce. To zajema dva koncepta - koncept izotropija, kar pomeni, da je vesolje videti približno enako kjer koli vi (to je ti) poglej - in homogenost, kar pomeni, da so lastnosti vesolja videti približno enako kaj opazovalci, kjer koli so in kamor koli se ozrejo. Homogenost ni nekaj, kar lahko pričakujemo, da bomo kdaj potrdili z opazovanjem - zato moramo domnevati, da je del vesolja, ki ga lahko neposredno opazujemo, pošten in reprezentativen vzorec preostalega vesolja.

Ocena izotropije je po našem preteklem svetlobnem stožcu vsaj teoretično mogoča. Z drugimi besedami, pogledamo v vesolje in prejmemo zgodovinske informacije o tem, kako se je vedlo v preteklosti. Nato domnevamo, da so se tisti deli vesolja, ki jih lahko opazujemo, obnašali dosledno in predvidljivo do danes & # 8211, čeprav ne moremo potrditi, ali je to res, dokler ne mine več časa. Toda karkoli zunaj našega svetlobnega stožca ni nekaj, za kar lahko pričakujemo, da bomo kdaj vedeli, zato lahko samo kdaj domnevamo, da je vesolje vseskozi homogeno.

V prostoru-času zasedate položaj, iz katerega je mogoče opaziti delež vesolja v vašem preteklem svetlobnem stožcu. Lahko tudi zasijete baklo naprej proti delu prihodnjega vesolja - vedoč, da lahko nekega dne ta svetlobni žarek doseže predmet, ki leži v vašem prihodnjem svetlobnem stožcu. Nikoli pa ne morete vedeti, da bi se kaj zgodilo zdaj na oddaljeni lokaciji v vesolju - ker leži na & # 039 hiperpovršini sedanjosti & # 039. Zasluge: Aainsqatsi.

Maartens se je pri razvoju argumenta razložil, zakaj bi bilo smiselno, da domnevamo, da je vesolje homogeno. V bistvu, če vesolje, ki ga lahko opazujemo, kaže na konstantno stopnjo izotropije skozi čas, to močno nakazuje, da se je naš del vesolja razvil na način, ki je skladen s tem, da je del homogenega vesolja.

Izotropija opazovanega vesolja je lahko močno nakazana, če pogledate v katero koli smer in ugotovite:
• dosledna porazdelitev snovi
• konstantne nasipne hitrosti galaksij in galaktičnih jat se odmikajo od nas z univerzalno širitvijo.
• dosledne meritve razdalje kotnega premera (kjer so predmeti enake absolutne velikosti videti manjši na večji razdalji & # 8211 do razdalje rdečega premika 1,5, ko začnejo videti večji & # 8211 glej tukaj) in
• dosledno gravitacijsko lečenje objektov velikega obsega, kot so galaktične kopice.

Ta opažanja podpirajo domnevo, da sta porazdelitev snovi in ​​osnovna vesoljsko-časovna geometrija opazovanega vesolja izotropna. Če ta izotropija velja za vse opazovalce, je vesolje skladno z metriko Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW). To bi pomenilo, da je homogena, izotropna in povezan & # 8211, tako da lahko potujete kjer koli (preprosto povezan) & # 8211 ali pa ima luknje (večkratno povezani), tako da lahko ne samo kam potujete, ampak obstajajo tudi bližnjice.

Kar ima opazovano vesolje nenehno je bila izotropna & # 8211 in bo verjetno tudi v prihodnje & # 8211 močno podprta z opazovanji kozmičnega mikrovalovnega ozadja, ki je do majhnega izotropno. Če je ta ista izotropija vidna vsem opazovalcem & # 8211, je verjetno, da ima vesolje, je in bo vedno tudi homogeno.

Na koncu se Maartens sklicuje na Koperniško načelo - ki pravi, da nismo samo mi ne središče vesolja, vendar je naše stališče večinoma poljubno. Z drugimi besedami, del vesolja, ki ga lahko opazimo, je lahko pravičen in reprezentativen vzorec širšega vesolja.

Deliti to:

Všečkaj to:


Najbolj koristni fantje

1 # Luna je dejansko oblikovana kot limona in ni popolna krogla, kot se kaže na nočnem nebu.

2 # Oblaki v središču Rimske ceste dišijo po rumu, okusu malin in so polni pijače.

3 # Ena čajna žlička nevtronske zvezde bi tehtala enako kot celotna človeška populacija.

4 # Črne luknje imajo teoretična nasprotja, znana kot bela luknja, ki jo namesto sesanja svetlobe in snovi izpljunejo.

5 # Uran je domiseln Kot edini planet, ki se vrti na boku, je Uran znanstvenike zmedel.

sprašujemo se, ali se ta vzorec kaže na drugih planetih v drugih sončnih sistemih.

@ lightbulb27 To bi rad ugotovil, kajti če bi se zgodilo, bi nam to povedalo, da je skoraj zagotovo veliko več kot nastanek planetov, kot ga trenutno razumemo.

Vesel sem, da bi lahko bil najbolj koristen! :)


Komentarji

Bob, vesel sem, da si pisal o tem opazovalnem izzivu. Minilo je vsaj desetletje ali več, odkar sem to poskusil. Ta opazovalni podvig sem dosegel zjutraj in zvečer. Mislim, da je to lažje narediti pozno poleti in jeseni, ker lahko opazujete Sirius v jutranjem mraku do sončnega vzhoda. Dobra ideja je, da stavbo, drevesa ali hrib zaprete soncu. Hranim seznam nebesnih predmetov, ki sem jih videl, ko je Sonce na nebu. Poleg Lune, Venere, Jupitra in Marsa (pri najbližji opoziciji) sem videl še en meteor / ognjeno kroglo in satelit Iridij. To je težje preizkusiti zaradi plovcev v očeh in drugih sprememb na očeh zaradi staranja.

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Tom,
Fant, ali kdaj razumem težavo s plovcem. Kot sem rekel, sem nagnil glavo tako in tako, da sem razčistil vid. Resnično pomaga! Vso srečo - vem, da jo boste opazili.

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Hej, Bob. Takšne teme me zanimajo že več kot 40 let in pravzaprav sem o njih že pred desetletji napisal literarni članek. Zamisel je bila videti zvezde z dna vodnjaka in podobne podvige. Takratni sklep je bil, da to ni mogoče. Zdaj ne rečem, da ste popolnoma napolnjeni z divjimi borovničevimi kolački, toda gledanje katere koli zvezde s prostim očesom podnevi je zelo problematična situacija. Razlika med fotografiranjem zvezde, kot je Sirius, podnevi in ​​dejanskim opazovanjem podnevi s prostim očesom so povsem različne stvari.

Kot ste že navedli, so najboljši čas za poskus malo pred sončnim zahodom ali takoj po sončnem vzhodu, še posebej, če je zvezda v tistem času približno 90 stopinj oddaljena od Sonca (in blizu vrhunca zvezde). Brez bližnjega "mejnika", kot je četrtina Lune (ali vašega drevesa), bi rekel, da je vsako tako opaženo opazovanje sumljivo, morda posledica obremenjevanja očesa do svojih meja.

Takšna opazovanja delam že desetletja. Moje oči so bile včasih odlične, starost pa pustoši in nisem več prepričana, kaj so sposobne opazovati. Vendar sem Venero opazoval že večkrat in celo Jupiter dvakrat ali trikrat. pri dnevni svetlobi, brez nadzora. O tem sem pisal bodisi v S & ampT bodisi v astronomiji (zdaj se ne morem spomniti - starost, veste). Vem za nekoga, ki je trdil, kar razumno mislim, da je po sončnem vzhodu videl Mars s prostim očesom. Vendar pa podnevi še nisem videl Siriusa ali katere koli druge zvezde. Ob predpostavki, da se niste zmotili pri identifikaciji, bi moral reči, da imate izjemen vid.

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Živjo Larry,
Razumem vaš skepticizem. Sem tudi skeptičen opazovalec in se nikoli ne bi odločil pisati o tej temi, če ne bi sam videl Siriusa. Ste prebrali opažanje Colina Henshawa? Povezavo sem vključil v blog.

Z veliko srečo smo imeli ta večer (6. marca) izjemno nebo. Pravkar sem vstopil po ponovnem poskusu opazovanja. Tokrat, ko sem se bolj seznanil s tem, kaj iskati, sem Sirius lahko videl popolnoma 4 minute pred sončnim zahodom. Takrat je bilo vsekakor težko. Toda dve minuti pred sončnim zahodom sem ga vztrajno držal in je bil zlahka viden. Samo vprašanje o tem. Minuto pred sončnim zahodom, pa še lažje je bilo. Seveda je preprost relativni izraz! A o tem, da bi ga videli, ni bilo dvoma. Izgleda kot bleda iskra ali utripanje v modrem. Zadnje 3-4 minute pred sončnim zahodom so ključni časi - vsaj za mojo zemljepisno širino. Priporočam vam, da poskusite znova Sirius, če le lahko. Morda boste prijetno presenečeni.

PS. Fotografijo sem naredil, da jo dokumentiram in pokažem, kako sorazmerno enostavno je s kamero ujeti zvezdo.

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No, to je izjemen podvig in pozdravljam vas in vse, ki so to storili. Zdaj moram ugotoviti, kdaj in kje je izšel moj članek (o: dnevnih planetih) v 80. letih.

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Hvala, Larry. Če najdete svoj prispevek, mi pošljite povezavo.

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Uporaba polariziranih sončnih očal ali polariziranega filtra na vašem daljnogledu / daljnogledu olajša.
Dolg članek iz leta 2008 o tem na: http://calgary.rasc.ca/daystars/index.htm

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Hvala, Larry za povezavo in seznam! Nekaj ​​teh predmetov sem podnevi opazoval z daljnogledi. Nisem prepričan, da bi polarizacijski filter pomagal pri opazovanju zvezd s prostim očesom, ker bi zasenčil zvezdino svetlobo, toda kdo ve? Poskusiti bom moral naslednjič, ko bom iskal Siriusa.

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Venero sem videl blizu lune decembra 2018 ob 11. uri na jasen dan. Slišal sem, da je Merkur mogoče videti tudi ob soncu, vendar je površinska svetlost manjša. Če je objekt v kvadraturi, polarizacijski filter nebo bolj zatemni kot objekt, ker zrak polarizira svetlobo, zato je kontrast proti nebu večji.

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Venero sem videl pred nekaj leti pozno zjutraj. S prvim častnikom sva bila zahodno blizu Spokaneja v zvezni državi WA in opazovala 747 metrov nad nami nekaj tisoč metrov nad nami, ki je šel nad glavo in puščal konturo. FO je opazil nekaj belega, ki je videti, kot da je padel s 747. Po nenavadnem naključju je z naše perspektive jumbo šel skozi mesto, kjer je bila Venera, in zaradi našega gibanja in gibanja 747 je Venera izgledala kot, da je del pustil drugo letala. Ni trajalo dolgo, ko sem opazil, da se "del" drži svojega položaja na nebu, in hiter pregled na Starwalku je potrdil, da gledamo Venero.

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Morda ne bi bilo nujno, da premaknete celo glavo in premaknete plavalce. Imam pomembne težave s plovcem, vendar jih lahko premikam s premikanjem samo oči. Poglejte desno, nato levo (ali vzvratno) ali navzdol, nato gor (ali vzvratno) in pustite, da se plovci namestijo na novem mestu. Po potrebi ponovite. Običajno deluje zame.

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Živjo Bob,
Odličen članek! Že dolgo sem navdušen nad dnevnimi astronomskimi opazovanji in sem do zdaj že videl vse klasične planete skozi obseg na modrem nebu, Venero in Jupiter pa s prostim očesom sredi belega dne, Siriusa pa ne. Zelo zabavna stvar, ki sem jo naredil, pa je bila ta, da sem opazoval in fotografiral Siriusa na opoldanskem nebu lani julija, ko Sirius ni bil povsem v astronomski povezavi s Soncem, ampak zagotovo v astrološki povezavi ali morda v strahu. Moja radovednost se je razvnela, ko je gost na našem julijskem srečanju vprašal, ali naredimo kaj za Heliacal Rise of Sopdet, ki mi je sprva dal pavzo, ko pa smo na koncu ugotovili, o čem govori, sem se vprašal, ali lahko "vidim" ( očitno z optično pomočjo) Sirius prej kot heliakalno naraščanje. Odgovor je bil dokončen "da" in v tem sem užival. Imam slike, če želite.

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Živjo Mike,
Si opoldne fotografiral Sirius? Neverjetno. Je bilo to skozi teleskop ali zgolj naravnost s kamero in teleobjektivom? Da, prosim objavite fotografijo ali mi pošljite na: [email protected] Hvala!

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Pred 4 ali 5 leti sem si navadila opazovati Jupiter zelo zvečer, ko sem sprehajala psa, tako da sem vedela, kam iskati in pravočasno določiti čas hoje, da sem ga lahko opazila pred sončnim zahodom. Pri odhodu bi bil vedno neviden in ponavadi očiten, ko pridem domov. Res je šlo za moj pogled, toda na sprehodu sem imel nekaj točk, kjer sem imel mejnike. Kot se spominjam, je bilo obdobje, ko sta bila možna tako Venera kot Jupiter.

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Stub,
Ko enkrat spoznate to, postane vse lažje.

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Pozdravljeni, Bob!
Hvala za zanimiv članek.
10. oktobra 2013 sem 4 minute po sončnem vzhodu s prostim očesom opazoval Sirius. Kot vodilo sem uporabil drevesno vejo.
Širina 49,7 °

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Vabljeni, SWN. In čestitke! Mislim, da smo vezani na čas.

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Moj prvi jasen večer po treh tednih in moj prvi poskus, da opazim Sirius pri dnevni svetlobi. Preprosto z binozo 5 minut pred sončnim zahodom, vendar brez pomoči daljnogleda nisem videl nobenega pozitivnega opazovanja šele 2 minuti po sončnem zahodu. Zdaj bom poskusil znova natančno vedeti, kam grem pogledat. Jakob

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Sirius sem lahko videl podnevi vsaj 1 minuto pred sončnim zahodom. Fotografiral sem ga lahko 1-8 minut po sončnem zahodu s pametnim telefonom ali potrošniško kamero Canon SX120IS. Hodil sem naokoli, da sem Sirius poravnal z oddaljenim drevesom ali grmom, da bi se telefon osredotočil na zemeljski objekt in na Sirius. Iz Kalifornije, blizu 34 stopinj zemljepisne širine, so bili izvedeni trije poskusi. Pričakujem, da bo dnevni izziv Sirius lažji na visoki nadmorski višini ali v kanjonu.

Canton Cottonwood, 16. marca, je nekaj minut pred sončnim zahodom našel z daljnogledi 7x35 in nato z očmi. Fotografiral sem 2 minuti po sončnem zahodu z uporabo iPhona X. Zelo jasno, vidljivost deset milj, približno 3500 metrov nadmorske višine in v kanjonu, ki je zmanjšal nekaj razpršene sončne svetlobe.

Borrego Springs, 27. marca. 18:53 videl z daljnogledom, 19:02 sončni zahod, 19:03 fotografijo s kamero SX120IS, 19:04 videl z očmi, 19:10 fotografiral z iPhone X.

Irvine, 28. marca. Gledano z daljnogledi, nato 19:07 s prostim očesom, 19:08 sončni zahod, 19:13 fotografirano s kamero SX120IS.


Kako deluje in kaj vključuje

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11 komentarjev

Za prepis sem kliknil povezavo do te strani. Kje je?

Hvala, ker ste ustvarili ta podcast. Informativni se mi je zdel celo razsvetljujoč, zlasti z vključitvijo zgornjih povezav.
Fleischmanna in Ponsa omenjate kot znanstvenike, ki so ubrali & # 8216pogrešno pot & # 8217, da bi sprejeli njihove teorije. Morda je tako, a vseeno se mi zdi ZELO zanimivo, da se raziskave tako imenovane & # 8216hladne fuzije & # 8217 nadaljujejo.
Še en znanstvenik, katerega teorije so bile & # 8216odmaknjene & # 8217, je dr. Oliver K. Manuel in njegova teorija o železnem jedru za sonce. Tudi v svojih izjavah imate prav, da neortodoksni pristopi samodejno ustvarjajo negativne povratne informacije drugih znanstvenikov. Skrbi me, da ko resnično bizarno zveneča teorija takoj & # 8216axira & # 8217 zaradi nekonvencionalnega razmišljanja in je nadaljnja eksperimentalna validacija & # 8216avtomatsko & # 8217 omejena.
Kar dosežem, je to, da & # 8216nekonvencionalno razmišljanje & # 8217 včasih lahko da odgovore, ki jih sicer lahko spregledamo in tisti, ki uporabljajo nekonvencionalne miselne procese, morda sploh nimajo socialnih veščin, potrebnih za pristop k znanstveni skupnosti & # 8216orthodox & # 8217.
Dejansko lahko na koncu ugotovimo, da imajo nekatere vrste & # 8216občutljivih & # 8217 posameznikov intuitivno modrost iz virov zunaj & # 8216normalne resničnosti & # 8217.
Na Imanuala Velokovskega najpogosteje gledajo kot na & # 8216 ročico & # 8217, pa vendar, kako je sploh spoznal, da bodo Jupitrove lune večinoma narejene iz vodnega ledu, preden bo kakšna misija tam ugotovila to dejstvo? Vsaj v mojih mislih se to dodatno sprašuje o njegovi teoriji, da je bil Saturn nekoč potujoči rjavi pritlikavec, ki ga je ujel Sol & # 8230, morda priča zgodnjega človeka?
Zdi se, da je pokojni Carl Sagan imel posebno maščevanje proti idejam Velokovskega in je osebno poskrbel, da so bile te teorije preusmerjene v koš za smeti zgodovine.
Pravim, prosim, ne podcenjujte vrednosti & # 8216glasa iz divjine & # 8217, ne glede na to, kako znanstveno surovi ali nelogični so sprva.

Skočite naprej v leto 2013 in ugotovili boste, da so mednarodne agencije, univerze in zasebna podjetja porabile izjemno veliko preiskav za draženje fizike pojava hladne fuzije. Hladna fuzija je zdaj znana kot & # 8220Nikoenergijske jedrske reakcije & # 8221, načelo šibke jedrske sile. Morda bo teorija W-L ena najpomembnejših odkritih v zadnjih 200 letih.
Predlagam, da pregled teh referenc začnete z Odkrijte mag. »Laični« članek (št. 2) in nato nadaljuj od št. 8 do št. 1. Opazili boste, da obstajata dve komponenti tehnologije LENR: presežek donosa energije in postopna transmutacija elementov skozi periodni sistem.
Prva predstavitev CERN-a (št. 5) obravnava naravno prisotne LENR-je, druga predstavitev CERN-a dr. Celanija (št. 5) pa vsebuje povzetek diapozitivov 42-48, v katerem poziva k mednarodnemu sodelovanju na področju raziskav, ki ga bom enačil napor, ki je bil večji od tistega za prvi projekt Manhattan v štiridesetih letih.
1. Predstavitev podjetja Larson-Lattice Energy LLC, december 2012:
a. http://www.slideshare.net/lewisglarsen/lattice-energy-llc-lenr-transmutation-networks-can-produce-golddec-7-2012
2. Odkrijte mag. Članek november 2012: http://discovermagazine.com/2012/nov/27-big-idea-bring-back-the-cold-fusion-dream
3. Nasin videoposnetek LENR Scientist:
a. Zawodny, maj 2012: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OtHR1NCzeKU
b. Zawodny, januar 2012: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JBlKc0TaqPs
4. NASA-Langley LENR objava Dennisa Bushnella, junij 2012: http://futureinnovation.larc.nasa.gov/view/articles/futurism/bushnell/low-energy-nuclear-reactions.html
5. CERN Pregled LENR marec 2012: http://cds.cern.ch/record/1433865 in http://cds.cern.ch/record/1433866?ln=en
6. NASA-jev raziskovalni center Glenn LENR, izdaja G. Fralick 2011: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/sensors/PhySen/docs/LENR_at_GRC_2011.pdf
7. Intervju z Lewisom Larsonom, junij 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OVRLcC21F14
8. Widom-Larsonova teorija LENR, oktober 2008: http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.0159

Feynman je govoril resnico:
Ni pomembno, kako lepa je vaša teorija, ni pomembno, kako pametni ste. Če se ne strinja s poskusom, je napačno.

Jedro atomov ves čas eksplodira! Eksplodirajoče jedro atomov oddaja valove energije, ki imajo naravo elektronov in delcev. Tudi elektroni in delci eksplodirajo in emitirajo valove eksplodirajoče energije itd.
Elektroni se samo premaknejo v naslednje eksplodirajoče jedro atomov in dobijo to eksplodirajočo energijo itd
Pred tem elektroni nekoliko spremenijo pritisk za energijske valove, ki se potisnejo iz eksplodirajočega jedra atomov in zato obstajajo novi elektroni, ki se premaknejo v naslednje jedro atomov itd.
http://www.onesimpleprinciple.com
.

Oh končno. Že nekaj časa nisem slišal nove oddaje Fraiserja in Pama.
Obožujem vaše pomirjujoče glasove =]

Vsak mentalist in psihiat iz Charlatana dobi nekaj napovedi ali & # 8220brancev & # 8221 prav. To je zaradi a) naključne naključja in b) razvite sposobnosti za & # 8220 branje & # 8221 izraza obraza, ustne signale in govorico telesa svojega subjekta / žrtve ter izpopolnjevanje pri vprašanjih / izjavah, ki pozitivno vplivajo.
Zato ni presenetljivo, da se je ena ali dve ideji Velokovsky & # 8217s (sic) izkazala za resnično. Če izbljuvate dovolj bizarnih idej, je na vaši strani statistika za končno potrditev ene ali dveh. Velikovsky & # 8217s & # 8220Svetovi v trku & # 8221 & # 8220 so predlagali, da je okoli 15. stoletja pred našim štetjem komet ali kometu podoben objekt (zdaj imenovan planet Venera), ki je bil prvotno izpuščen iz Jupitra, minil blizu Zemlje (dejanski trk je ni omenjen). Predmet je spremenil zemeljsko orbito in os in povzročil nešteto katastrof, ki so bile omenjene v zgodnjih mitologijah in religijah po vsem svetu. Dvaindvajset let pozneje je spet minil blizu, za nekaj časa ustavil vrtenje Zemlje in povzročil nove katastrofe. Nato se je v 8. in 7. stoletju pred našim štetjem Mars (ki ga je Venera razselila) približal Zemlji in ta incident je povzročil nov krog motenj in katastrof. Po tem je bil vzpostavljen trenutni & # 8220celestialni red & # 8221. Potoki planetov so se skozi stoletja stabilizirali in Venera je postopoma postala & # 8220normalen & # 8221 planet. & # 8221 (citat dvignjen iz članka Wikipedije o Svetih v trku)
Kje se začne? Je orbitalna mehanika tako nestabilna, da se planeti poskakujejo kot kroglice v bazenu, kadar koli jih potrebujemo za potrditev kronologije nekega mitskega dogodka? Sprememba Zemljine orbite (očitno večkrat) in osi ter nato zaustavitev planeta, ki je mrzel v svoji orbiti v zadnjih 3500 letih, bi pustila precej globoke geološke dokaze. In prisili se k vprašanju: kako se je spet začelo premikati? In ali ni bil Velikovsky tisti, ki je trdil, da je zemlja votla?
Strinjam se & # 8230, da & # 8217s zagotovo je primer nekonvencionalnega razmišljanja. To je tudi odličen primer neke vrste psevdoznanstvenega mišljenja, ki se zdi, da danes prežema popularno kulturo.
Medtem ko je Carl Sagan v svoji knjigi & # 8220Broca & # 8217s Brain & # 8221 in v televizijski seriji Cosmos zavračal teorije Velikovskega, je njegova kritika v javnosti segala vse do Harlowa Shapleyja v začetku dvajsetega stoletja.
Kar zadeva idejo, da & # 8220V resnici lahko na koncu ugotovimo, da imajo nekatere vrste & # 8216senzibilnih & # 8217 posameznikov intuitivno modrost iz virov zunaj & # 8216normalne resničnosti & # 8221, mislim, da ta izjava prej spada na spletno stran New Age kot na znanstveni. Razprava o resničnostih izven običajne & # 8220 & # 8221, za katero se zdi, da smo vsi prisiljeni živeti, spada na področje religioznosti. Neprestano me osupne pomanjkanje znanstvenega izobraževanja in kritičnega mišljenja, ki ga ustvarja naš ameriški izobraževalni sistem.


Ep. 67: Ustvarjanje kariere v astronomiji

Z vsem navdušenjem, ki ga je & # 8217s ustvaril astronomija, je imel & # 8217s nekoliko čuden stranski učinek. Nekaterim našim poslušalcem se je zaradi njihove kariere zgodila kriza srednjih let. Imeli smo tudi druge ljudi, ki želijo le nasvet - # 8211 se prvič selijo na fakulteto in želijo usmerjati tečaje, ki jih bodo obiskovali astronomijo. Nekateri ljudje že imajo zelo koristne veščine in so se spraševali, kako lahko pomagajo ali celo spremenijo svojo kariero, če delajo na terenu. Mislili smo, da poskušamo odgovoriti na vsa vprašanja naenkrat in samo prehodimo glavne poklicne poti, ki se nanašajo na astronomijo in vesolje, ter vrste stvari, ki jih boste morali narediti, da boste dejansko dobri kandidat za to področje.

Razstavne opombe

Neprofitne skupine

Podiplomska šola

Kariera v astronomiji

    & # 8211 & # 8220Ključ za astronomsko zaposlitev & # 8221 & # 8211 od ASP

Zapis: Ustvarjanje kariere v astronomiji

Fraser Cain: Z vsem navdušenjem, ki ga ustvarja astronomija, je to imelo nekoliko čuden stranski učinek. Nekaterim našim poslušalcem se je zaradi njihove kariere zgodila kriza srednjih let. Imeli smo tudi druge ljudi, ki hočejo le nasvet - prvič se selijo na fakulteto in želijo usmerjati tečaje, ki jih bodo obiskovali astronomijo. Nekateri ljudje že imajo zelo koristne veščine in so se spraševali, kako lahko pomagajo ali celo spremenijo svojo kariero, če delajo na terenu. Mislili smo, da bomo poskušali odgovoriti na vprašanja vseh naenkrat in samo prešli glavne poklicne poti, ki se lahko nanašajo na astronomijo in vesolje, in kakšne stvari boste morali dejansko narediti ste dober kandidat za to področje.

Kar sem mislil, da bi v resnici storili, je začeti z biografijo Pamela - potem bomo naredili svojo.

Kako ste od naravnost srednješolca postali profesor, raziskovalec astronom z doktorskim disertacijo nekje ... kakšen je bil postopek?

Dr. Pamela Gay: Moram priznati, da nisem bil naravnost dijak srednje šole. Ta razred, imenovan nemščina, me je res skoraj ubil.

Fraser: Vredu. V redu.

Pamela: Nikoli me ne prosite, naj govorim nemško, to je samo osebno ponižanje - in tam je bilo vrženih veliko B-jev.

Fraser: V redu, v redu, v redu. Pravzaprav nisem izvedel, kakšne so bile vaše ocene, samo ugibal sem.

Lahko bi se kar strinjali, ampak v redu - nadaljujte.

Pamela: Veliko ljudi domneva, da je to ena od stvari: "Nisem naravnost študent, ne bi mogel biti astronom, ker ni treba biti zares pameten?" €?

No, ja, res moraš biti pameten, vendar ocene niso edina diagnostika, ali si pameten človek ali ne. Včasih so ocene bolj odraz: "Bil sem srednješolec: včasih me ni zanimalo trigonometrije."

Kar potrebujete, so dobre ocene iz naravoslovja in matematike ter sposobnost komunikacije. Ni vam treba vedeti, kako analizirati Shakespearja in poezijo (čeprav to lahko počne veliko znanstvenikov), vendar morate vedeti, kako učinkovito komunicirati, da lahko rečete: "Prišel sem do tega velikega odkritja, naj vam povem o tem! â €? in drugi ljudje bodo razumeli, kaj pravite.

Ampak to ni ne tu ne tam.

Da bi prišel od nerdastega srednješolca (za katerega bom priznal, da - če bi obstajal znanstveni klub, bi bil jaz tam. Če bi obstajala kakšna skupina, bi bil tam). Da bi od tega prišli do doktorata, je astronom potreboval 4 leta šolanja in 4 semestre računa.

Šel sem na Michigan State University kot študent. Udeležila sem se ur fizike - udeležila sem se vsakega posameznega tečaja, ki sem se ga lahko udeležila. Če želite biti dober astronom, morate razumeti vso fiziko, pa tudi astronomijo. Udeležila sem se tudi velikega števila ur matematike in računalništva. Številni astronomi pravzaprav tudi diplomirajo iz matematike kot študent, ker je toliko fizike, ki se ukvarja s fiziko in astronomijo.

Zdaj, če sediš tam, "o, moj bog, sovražim matematiko, tega ne bi mogel nikoli storiti?" v redu je - sedim tam z vami. Namesto tega se lahko naučite računalniškega programiranja. Zdaj je toliko stvari, ki zahtevajo programiranje baz podatkov. If, instead of becoming an amazing calculus/linear algebra/abstract algebra super-guru, you go out and become an expert database programmer, an expert large number statistics and mathematical modelling programmer, those are other skills that are extremely useful in becoming an astronomer.

Fraser: Right, but I don’t think that we can really protect people from the math.

Pamela: No – you have to take four semesters of calculus.

Fraser: Yeah, I mean a lot of what you do as an astronomer is crunch numbers – you look at the math, you make calculations, you’re trying to make predictions and that all just comes from math – your gravity, you’re calculating light. It’s just math, math, math. Not to mention the really hard stuff, like what the cosmologists and the theoretical physicists are working on. That’s a whole other level. Even just regular, day-to-day being an astronomer does involve a lot more math than any other career.

Pamela: So you have to survive in math. You have to understand the math, but you can tune what area of astronomy you go into to decide either, “I love/adore mathematics, I’m going to become a cosmologist who does theoretical models of the universe,� or you can decide, “I’m going to go off and do research on quasars and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey looking for statistical trends,� where you need to understand the statistics, but the majority of your day-to-day work is computer programming.

Fraser: So does the undergrad degree really matter?

Pamela: The undergrad degree matters in terms of that’s the first step to getting into graduate school.

Fraser: Would you say a math degree, a chemistry degree, a physics degree, a computer science degree, all those would be appropriate?

Pamela: I’ve met people in graduate school who have degrees in mathematics, physics and astrophysics primarily. There are other people who have other degrees. There was a woman who went to graduate school with me, Marsha Wolfe, she had a degree in electrical engineering, and she could make telescopes do things that most of the technicians couldn’t. she did fabulous work on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope as a graduate student because she had this background in electrical engineering.

So there are always exceptions to the rules, but in general the straight paths that are most often taken are to get an undergraduate degree in astronomy, physics or mathematics.

Fraser: Okay, so that’s four years – what’s next?

Pamela: Next is graduate school. While you’re doing that undergrad work, you need to look for research opportunities. There are summer programs – the National Science Foundation funds what are called REUs. This is where you get research experience as an undergrad by going off to some university other than the one you’re attending, or going off to some centre like Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, and you spend your entire summer doing research.

Fraser: This is probably where our previous podcast on how amateurs can contribute dovetails into this. If you’ve already been an amateur and have already made some of those connections, you can probably then draw on them and contact some of the researchers and say, “I’m working on my graduate degree now, are there any opportunities to do research work with what you’re doing?� If you’ve done things really well, you’ve probably had a lot of doors open for you.

Pamela: One of the neat doors is occasionally you’ll get amateur astronomers who have an undergraduate degree that they got 10-15 years ago in electrical engineering, computer science – some technical field – and they’ve been working in that field since they graduated, but they’re off doing amateur astronomy. They’re off working with researchers or doing day-to-day observational data reduction – all the normal grunt work that gets given to grad students.

They go, and they fill in the things they didn’t get that you need to get into graduate school – a few classes in astronomy, a few classes in calculus… then they apply for graduate school right off the bat as a mid-life career change, going to grad school in their 40’s and 50’s, jumping headlong into their research… but they’re ready because of the stuff they’ve been doing as amateurs.

This is a very rare case, but I can think of three different people who’ve made that mid-life change of career.

Fraser: I think some of the people who’ve emailed us have sounded like they’re in that class: people who’ve been engineers or computer scientists for the last ten years, and have always wanted to get involved in astronomy.

How many years, then, of graduate school? Is there a master’s degree first?

Pamela: It’s typically a two-year master’s degree. You often do your master’s and your PhD at the same institution and often in the same area of research.

Fraser: So where did you do your master’s degree?

Pamela: I went to the university of Texas. I’m actually kind of an oddball: I did my master’s degree on variable star astronomy and then I did my PhD on observational cosmology – I did the evolution of galaxies in clusters.

You can break things apart. The more general ay to do it is to pick a topic and stick with it. You stick with it for sometimes upwards of six, seven, eight different years.

Theorists: people who focus on the math and doing the computer modelling of how the universe behaves, they often escape a little bit faster because they’re not waiting to get their data. People who actually build instruments, it’ll take them a little bit longer. You might see a theorist escape from starting graduate school to finishing their PHD in five years (that’s with both the master’s degree and the PhD), whereas someone who builds an instrument will still get the master’s degree at the end of two years, but it might be eight years down the line from starting graduate school to getting the PhD before they finally have that sheepskin they can walk away with.

Fraser: How many total years did you do in grad school?

Pamela: Six and a half years.

Fraser: You did six and a half years of graduate school, and four years of undergraduate school.

Pamela: Ten and a half years of my life.

Fraser: That’s ten and a half years of school.

Fraser: It’s not like you did it part time – you were pretty solid for most of the at time, right?

Pamela: I never went off to Europe for a summer. The summer between freshman and sophomore year of undergrad I spent working at MIT. The summers after that I spent doing astronomy research. Graduate school was non-stop the entire time. Yeah I went through… I don’t always recommend this. I think everyone needs to go somewhere for a summer and just… be 20.

Pamela: But yeah, I went straight through.

Fraser: Okay, and then things didn’t really get started then… so you’re ten and a half years of school in, then what?

Pamela: The normal route after that is to go off and do a post-doc. You spend anywhere from six months to three years at another university learning how to run your own research program.

When you’re in graduate school, you’re working on your own research project, but you have your dissertation advisor and often an entire dissertation committee to herd you – to say, “you might want to look at these journal articles,� or, “you might want to register for this conference, let’s work on writing this paper together.� You’re answering questions where you’re the only one working to find the answer, but there’s people guiding how you do that.

Fraser: So where did you do your post-doc work?

Pamela: This is where, again, I was an oddball. I’ve always wanted to do public outreach, so for me the path wasn’t a straight one. I actually jumped from getting my PhD to working as an editor at Astronomy Magazine for one year. Then I went to Harvard and worked as instructional staff for three years.

The other route you can do if you don’t do the post-doc route is you can go and take a visiting professor position and work as an instructor for a certain period of time. You spend a few years getting teaching experience. That was more the direction I was leaning in.

After spending a year doing something totally different with my brain, I went and worked at Harvard where I was an instructional laboratory associate. While I was there, I got to do some teaching and learn how to develop good labs, work with the telescope there. From there I came to Southern Illinois University Edwardsville where I’m on the faculty.

Fraser: All right. You’re really just getting started.

Pamela: I’m a baby astronomer.

Fraser: Yeah, being on the faculty… what will the future hold, theoretically for your position? You’ve only essentially been a professor for a couple of years now.

Pamela: Right now I’m what’s called an adjunct professor.

There’s lots of different positions. We usually talk about them as soft-money positions and hard-money positions. people can spend their entire life in either one of these categories.

Soft-money positions, which is kind of what I have right now, means some of your salary comes from grant money, from contracts with NASA or other agencies to do specific work. It basically means you’re constantly writing grants and begging for money (Hi! Donate to Astronomy Cast!). You’re doing things you choose to do.

I also teach in this adjunct position, which means I look for whatever classes are open – those are the ones I get to teach.

Hard-money positions are sort of holy grail. These are positions funded by the university that if you don’t have grant money you may not get promoted, but you’re there to stay. Often you start off in a tenure-track position (this is what I’m hoping to find sometime in the future).

A tenure-track position means you’re on a probationary period (often for six years). During that probationary period, you demonstrate you’re capable of supervising graduate students, that you’re capable of bringing in grant money, and that you’re a teacher that knows how to teach to the population of students at your particular university.

Every university’s students have their own particular needs and personality that you have to know how to interact with. Someone who’s an excellent professor at Princeton may not be an excellent professor at a liberal arts university. You have to find the right voice for your audience.

So you spend anywhere from three to six years in this probationary tenure-track position and then you either lose your job or you go on and you end up becoming the tenured professor. Tenured professors really can’t be fired unless they totally screw up. The reason for this system is to allow you the academic freedom to follow questions that may not have an easily found answer where you might spend three years following the rabbit down the rabbit hole only to discover that the rabbit really didn’t exist.

Once you have tenure, you have the freedom to ask the questions that are risky questions.

Fraser: Let me see if I can do the math here: four years of undergrad, five-ish years of graduate school, a few years of post-doc and then if you get in with a university you’re looking at six years of tenure-track and then you might end up as a tenured professor at a university.

Pamela: So you’re often in your late-30’s

Fraser: Or early 40’s.

Pamela: Yeah, before you’re finally done. There’s lots of people who will do two, three, four post-docs. It’s quite common right now for people to do two post-docs and then start looking for the tenure-track position.

In my particular case, I did one year at Astronomy Magazine (to do something totally different) and then worked at Harvard for three years. Now I’m in the adjunct professor position. I’m not going to move unless I find a tenure-track position to look for.

Pamela: I have my soft-money. I have students I love working with, and I just have to see what the future holds and hope the grant money and (Hi! Donate to Astronomy Cast!) that our audience is friendly to us.

Fraser: Right. Let’s say you took a different course – that’s the traditional, academia, on your way to being a tenured professor track. You come out with your post-doc and let’s say you’re purely into the research – where does that course take you?

Pamela: That’s another perfectly normal path for people to take. You come out, you do your post-doc for say three years, and then you start looking at the national observatories and at research centres to see what positions they have. These are the people that work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, at the Southwest Research Institute near where Phil lives, and people who work at Kitt Peak National Observatory, at the National Radio Astronomy Observatories… all these different places have staff astronomers who are full-time researchers who aren’t doing the teaching, but instead are able to dedicate all their time to the development of new knowledge. That’s pretty much all they do.

Fraser: But that takes a certain kind of personality – that’s the kind of person who really enjoys just the research and doesn’t necessarily want to spend the time doing the outreach and the teaching, etc.

Pamela: There are those of us (and I fall into this category) that get a certain high off of teaching. There’s something wonderful about having an audience full of students. There are these magical days, occasionally where the students just start firing out questions and getting into an idea. It may not be the idea you meant to teach that day, but you get them talking, you get them thinking, and you realise, “I have just made them think about something they’ve never thought of before�. That really makes it more interesting for me to work on my research, because I can see someday this is something I can get someone fired up with. This is something I can use to get people interested in wanting to learn.

But that’s my personality. There are other people who don’t need the same people contact that I need, and they do very well sitting down and chewing through the numbers and working with the equipment, getting amazing results while working with their peers, their collaborators.

All of astronomy is a social endeavour. If you look at the journal articles, almost everything is authored by more than one person, but the people you work with vary with what type of job you choose.

Fraser: But from my place here, that sounds like a really hard slog. To go through all of those steps and to get all of that education in place – either for the research route or for the academic route. I wouldn’t mind hearing some other ways you can come in from the side, some other kinds of careers that are tangentially related to it.

If you are enthusiastic about astronomy, if you are willing to put in an investment of education but not necessarily a full tenure-track… what are some possibilities?

Pamela: There are all sorts of different career options. All because you choose one path doesn’t mean you have to stay on that one path. It’s harder when you switch paths, but nothing is ever set in stone.

Rick Feinberg, who is the editor-in-chief of Sky and Telescope Magazine has a PhD in astronomy from Harvard. He went from doing the whole PhD researcher thing, to now leading one of the most prestigious astronomy magazines you can find in the bookstore. That’s a different route, and he has many people on his staff who have different levels of science degrees. David Tytell has an undergraduate degree from Caltech. Kelly Beatty (I think) also went to Caltech. They have people with master’s degrees on their staff.

This an extremely well educated in science staff, working in the field of journalism. They get to live and breathe the science, and talk to the scientists on a daily basis and be involved… but they’re using their astronomy knowledge to communicate rather than produce new knowledge. They do have people on their staff out there searching for asteroids and doing amazing science in their spare time as well, which really says something about the staff they have.

You can also get involved as a docent at your local museum. Say you don’t want to switch careers, but you want to get involved in astronomy. You can get involved at your local museum doing sky tours. A lot of museums have telescopes associated with them you could perhaps get to use – and perhaps get high school students involved in doing research. You work as the broker between the researcher and the high school student, to help scientists get better research done and get students doing that research.

There are also all sorts of side-tasks that somebody needs to do, that take different skills than necessarily a PhD in astronomy. There’s all the software we use, there’s the planetarium software – Starry Night, for instance. There’s data analysis software like IRAF or MIRA.

There’s also all the hardware that we use, from developing better cameras like Apogee and Santa-Barbara Instruments do at the amateur level. At the professional level, there are people who build individual, specific cameras where an institution will spend anywhere from thousands of dollars to millions of dollars on building new instrument systems to take better spectra, to take deeper images, to improve our ability to capture photons from distant objects in the universe. That requires optical engineers, electrical engineers. These are people who often have only bachelor’s degrees… but without them the PhD researchers could do nothing.

Fraser: Right, so you’ve got people who are creating the software that can scan through the big databases or be able to store the data. You’ve got the engineers and the people who help with the optics and the CCD cameras and all that stuff.

In many cases, the people working the observatories, helping support the astrophysicist or astronomer coming in to record their data… you’ve got someone who work with the observatory who helps to make sure the recording equipment is ready to go, the equipment is properly prepared so they can start doing their tests.

Pamela: Every observatory has the individuals who basically are the shepherds that allow the astronomers to function. We sort of fly in and we’re there for three or four nights. Maybe we get to come back several times a year, but we don’t live and breathe the observatory atmosphere. There are people who are the night assistants, who are there every night working the telescopes for the astronomers. There are the people who are there to switch out the instruments.

A given telescope may have half a dozen or more different instruments that you can take off and put on, depending on what research you’re doing. It takes an extremely skilled set of individuals to swap out the instruments and get everything up and running smoothly and correctly calibrated.

The night assistants I think have one of the coolest jobs. They get to see everything they’re not specialists on planets, galaxies or stars… they’re specialists in making the telescope do whatever needs to be done. They get to see the data on everything as they sit there and basically they’re the puppeteer that makes the telescope go.

Fraser: Are there other fields… I know there’s the SETI institute, and you work with the AAVSO. There must be some positions in those as well – some volunteer organizations?

Pamela: In addition to the national centres and the university-based centres, there are also a whole set of different non-profit research organizations. We have the Planetary Society, there’s the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the American Association of Variable Star Observers, SETI – the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence. These are all non-profit centres that are run primarily off of individual donations and grants that do specified research. The AAVSO studies variable stars. SETI is doing astrobiology. The ASP is working to better integrate astronomy and education. These groups work with a focus on specific projects, and partner with the national research centres and different universities to better meet their goals.

So you can also get in through the non-profit link, if that’s a direction you want to go. There are so many different ways to get involved in astronomy, it’s just a matter of looking around your community and asking, “what can I afford to do?�

Many of these jobs… let’s face it, most of us would do what we do for free if it weren’t for the fact we have bills to pay. Astronomy is not exactly a highly-paid field, in general.

Fraser: I was going to ask that. Let’s say we’ve got a tenured professor – they make a bundle, don’t they?

Pamela: A freshly-minted, tenured professor and a freshly-minted computer scientist, where the computer scientist is someone who just finished their bachelor’s degree, will often make the same amount of money depending on the market.

Pamela: So, you don’t go into academe because you want to make a lot of money. It also depends on where you end up.

We recently had one of our undergraduates in physics finish her degree here at SIUE and she got hired to work at Fermi lab, which is an accelerator up near Chicago. She was hired at basically the same salary a starting professor would get hired at. When you go to work at national labs, the pay’s a little higher. When you work at little state universities, the pay’s a little lower.

Because we’re all state or federal employees, it’s actually possible to look up most of our incomes online, which is a little bit sad because it means really – we have no privacy. But all the numbers are out there, and there’s an excellent link on the Chronicle of Higher Education’s page (which we’ll work on getting in the show notes), that allows you to look up how much professors and instructors are paid at different universities across the United States. These numbers tend to be biased by the fact that business professors make way more than anyone else.

Just to give people my bio, I’m completely different. I actually went to UBC here in Vancouver for engineering and sort of stopped part-way to go and found a software company here in Vancouver and run a series of software companies of the course of about ten years. Finally recently I finished getting my computer science diploma (even though I’ve been working in computer science).

One of the things I was doing on the side, I had astronomy as a hobby, so I was maintaining Universe Today as a way to sort of learn how to manage a website but also to sort of follow one of my hobbies. Sometimes your hobbies have a way of becoming your life. Over time, over the years as I was managing, I built up a larger and larger following. In the last couple of years, I’ve been able to do this as my full-time job.

I think you and I took probably the most different directions that we possibly could have, and yet here we are doing Astronomy Cast. I think that says you can take the traditional route, you can take an alternative route. As long as you clearly know who you are and know what you like, and have a good sense of how you work, then almost anything’s possible.

Pamela: There’s room in this field for people of almost every background. That’s one of the most amazing things. I’ve had the opportunity to work with amazing graphical artists to help figure out how to communicate visually to people better.

Fraser: Oh yeah – almost every day I’m exposed to three or four paintings or computer renderings of an astronomical object or a piece of space equipment, that’s been done by some computer animator. That’s a huge field as well.

Pamela: When you start looking in the education and public outreach offices of the national labs and the big universities, you start finding people who have marketing degrees, who have art degrees, who have literature degrees… who are working to bridge between the scientists and the public. They’re immersed in astronomy all day, every single day, even though they have backgrounds that are anything but astronomy. They’re necessary to the communication of astronomy.

Fraser: Right, that would probably be which basket I would fit into – I’ve got the physics and chemistry from my engineering education, but I definitely don’t have the astrophysics and I only have a little bit of calculus under my belt, not the amount you have.

I think as long as you really immerse yourself in the subject matter and bring yourself up to speed, there’s quite a lot you can do if you’re interested in the communication side. If you really want to do the research side, I don’t think there’s any short circuit around doing school.

Pamela: No, and it really does help if you’re a straight-A student and if your undergraduate GPA is above 3.5. That’s kind of the magic number – and you need to do research as an undergrad.

You can go the whole route being a B-student, with not doing the research, but it’s going to be a lot harder and your chances of making it are a lot lower.

When I was a freshman at Michigan State, one of my faculty looked at a room of about 70 students and said, “about ten of you are going to go to graduate school, about one of you is going to get a PhD.� I know that three of us in the room did go on and get PhD’s, and two of us are still active in astronomy.

But that was a room of 70 people.

Fraser: Out of 70, yeah. Vau.

Pamela: Now, there are people in the room I lost track of, but those are the people I know.


[Total Beginner]How do I start?

Živjo. I'm a CS student and recently just graduated from college. Now I have more time to explore the wander of the sky, but since I'm coming from a country near the equator where astronomy as hobby isn't that popular I somewhat lost before even starting. How do I start? I can't identify any constellation pattern yet except Orion and Gemini.

P/S: I have a quite cheap binocular that look like this. Is it sufficient?

That is sufficient. Use it as much as you can to learn the sky and see things. Online you can find star charts and binocular observing information.

The binoculars are going to work just fine. You should download Stellarium to help you get an idea what exactly you're looking at. Universe Sandbox is another great program that is loads of fun to play around with, and it'll help familiarize you with our galaxy and local group.

For actually learning about space science, there are lots of books and television shows that would be useful. How good is your English (assuming you're not from an English speaking country)? Most programs are going to be fairly straightforward, but there may be a few technical terms you aren't familiar with. Iɽ recommend starting with the original Cosmos, and working from there. If there are any planetariums in your area, make sure to visit! Same goes for any observatories. The people working there may be able to recommend good books in your native language.

Good luck and have fun! There's so much to learn about space science that you'll never get bored!


How to become an astronomer?

I am 24 years old, and like everyone on the planet I've struggled with deciding on what I want to dedicate my life towards career-wise. I've entertained ideas revolving around psychology, occult and shamanistic studies, philosophy, film, writing, etc. I went to school and attained a BA that I now consider all but worthless, apart from the excellent experiences I've had in college. But all I want to do is stare into space. It's an awestricken experince. It's what wanted to do as a child and Astronomy was by far the best course I ever took in college. I don't particularly enjoy mathematics, but I'm good at it, and I have a greater appreciation for the value of it now then in the past.

I just want to know how I would go about accomplishing this and what the chances of being able to get a job at an observatory?

tldr: Definitely not an easy or safe field to want to go into, and it's a massive gamble at terrible odds as to whether you'll get the job you want. It's a very unforgiving and intensely competitive field.

So any job is going to require a Masters degree in Astrophysics/Astronomy (they're broadly functionally equivalent terms), but seeing how rare those jobs are, it's more like a minimum requirement to have a PhD in the subject. Even still, astrophysicists rarely work ob an observatory. A lot are controlled via distance now, and most of the people on-site will be engineers. Running an observatory is often nothing more than running commands, or running a file to run commands for you, and checking that no alarms are sounding. It's glorified baby-sitting, and a job often given to graduate students.

Since your degree sounds like it had no significant physics/maths component, your best bet would probably be to go back and get another degree. You could do a post-bacc or try to get into a taught Masters, but at this stage your background is too lacking to be accepted outright into a reasonable program, and youɽ have to do so many units that it'll amount to a Bachelors worth or close to it. Had your degree been in a highly quantitative field, you might have been able to get into a good Masters and then hopped into PhD from there.

Depending on your country and exactly what classes you've done, you could be looking at another 3 years just to get the basics of physics. Then, depending on your performance and exactly how you get that experience, you might be headed for a Masters or straight to PhD. Masters are often not funded and are not offered in many places, so it's not an ideal path to take. If you do Masters, that's another

2 years of study. Then, the PhD, which can vary anywhere from 3-8ish years depending on previous experience and the country you do it in, along with what your specialisation is. An experimental astrophysics thesis might take longer than a theoretical or computational one, for example.

So then you have your qualifications, up to a doctorate in astrophysics, and your chances will be abysmal. You could probably get a post-doc position somewhere, but they're fixed term at 2-3 years with little/no chance of extension, and they pay peanuts for the amount of work you'll be doing. If you do 2-3 of those and still can't get a permanent position anywhere, your chances are unlikely that you'll ever find one, and people will stop hiring you for post-docs because it looks suspicious that you're still not employed permanently.

If you really want to go for it, you need to put in 110% at every stage. Getting less than A's isn't really acceptable if you want to maximise chances of success, and you need to get into research as soon as you can prej you apply to graduate programs. Having a published, peer-reviewed paper is also a massive boost to admissions.


How do I know what I'll be able to see? - astronomija

I was hoping to show the Cub pack Tuesday but the forecast is overcast. I'll be looking tonight.

Thankfully, Saturn is now up in the evening.

I like tacos. Has anyone had a comet taco party? I'm thinking of having one but dont what kind of salsa to use on my moon tacos? Any suggestions?

On Oahu, which direction should I be looking?

The finder map above is for locations near 40* N latitude. The longitude of the location doesn't matter as much. So even on Oahu, the finder map is quite accurate around 10 PM local time.

No luck - I've got Saturn, but I'm not seeing anything near Saturn with binoculars nor with my lx90 with 40mm, 26mm or 13mm. What am I doing wrong? Watching from Kansas City it's 12:30 a.m. and I've been looking for 30 minutes.

Hey all Just saw it. Im in central Jersey and spotted it low in the western sky, It was just like they say, didnt have a telescope or binoculars. Was green, bright, and flashing green and red, really flashing alot, I could tell is was moving very very slow, I went inside to check the web again and went I went back out it was gone, I think because it got kind of hazzy out, Great sight to see though!! They say you could see it tomorrow too, Ill be looking ! Good luck all !!

What is the best time to view this? I live in eastern PA (near Harrisburg). My husband says near sunrise but I've been out two days in a row and nothing. My 11 year old son is disappointed.

No luck tried with 11x70s at 10pm and 5am. Found Saturn and one star due W in FOV but light pollution killed all else.

The forecast for the next couple of days looks worse.

@anonymous(NJ) sorry to disappoint, flashing is a good clue you've seen an aircraft.

You would likely need a telescope to see any motion and it would take some time. You might see some green in a good pair of binoculars or a scope.

Some photos can be found below (but these are long exposure and more than you'll see by eye).

That's some airplane! We live in Virginia and saw the same one in the Western sky! Very bright, seemed to wobble, and remained visible for the 15-20 minutes we were watching after midnight. Perhaps someone has another idea as to what we were seeing? Airplanes always move out of sight within a minute or two.

i live in surrey in England would i look east from my house - i have a telescope - C

@Charlotte, look SE around 10pm or WSW before dawn. By the 27th the comet should be by Regulus the star at the base of Leo near the arrow that says later days.

@The Universe - Nuts, the cloud cover rolled in just as Saturn would have been rising :(

To the folks in Virginia seeing something in the West after midnight. You were most likely seeing the setting of Sirius (Alpha Canis Majoris) or Rigel (Beta Orionis). Comet Lulin is stll high in the south at midnight.

Was just out for over two hours looking at the night sky and couldn't see it. Saturn was in the southern sky clear as day but no comet. Dover Pa

Excelent informative post.

I´m in Mexico city where the atmospheric polution and night lights are a real problem to see details in the sky, but tonight -as a universe gift- the sky is incredible clear and after an hour looking for Lulin finally i found it. In my apreciation it seems similar to orion´s nebulae, very close similar, but Lulin has a lovely green fog while orion´s nebulae is blue (naked eye). I found it helped with a binoculars 12X60. I have a little comercial "Tasco" telescope 60mmX900mm refractor with two eyepieces (12mm and 5mm) and it was enough to observe this beautiful sky show (enjoyable more with wide open eyepiece like 12mm).

with my little telescope and wide open eyepiece (12mm) Saturn and Lulin was NOT in the same visual field. (but with binoculars 12X60 you can see them both in the same visual field.) At this time Saturn barely has his "ears" so it´s easy to make the mistake and take him as a star.

My son and i saw it tonight and last night thru a 6" telescope, very nice! It was about 2º away from Saturn. I think my son was more impressed by Saturn though..LOL

i liveon the east coast of the uk , can somebody please tell me were to look ??

I really wanted to see this comet but tonight is overcast again! I have a telescope but i dont know much about it, dont know how strong it is or anything, all i know is it shows the moon in great detail. Ive been looking for some planets, how do i tell them apart from the stars?? -LAURA X

Laura and Matt--
I don't know if Weather Underground has a U.K site, but try www.wunderground.com/sky/index.asp, for the U.S. they have an AWESOME tool where you can enter your postal code and the time you want to be looking, and it will show you five views of the sky. the four directions and up. (Matt, I don't know what your latitude is, but if you try it, and there's no U.K. version, try these codes for Anchorage, AK (99501), lat 61, and Madawska, Maine (04756), lat 47. You'll have to adjust the time accordingly, but the views should be right.) You can have it label the stars and planets for you, so you will know where to look, and then aim between Regulus and Saturn. That tool will also be great for showing you where to look for Venus, which looks like a really bright star to the naked eye, but there's no mistaking it in the scope, and it is just excellent right now, even with a crappy scope like mine.---ae

@Laura, you should try out your scope first. Saturn should be an easy target. You'll need about 35 power or more to see the rings. Don't go too high either - stay to lower powers. If you don't know the power outright, you need to divide the focal length of the scope by the size of the eyepiece. If you have an 800mm long scope and a 20mm eyepiece you have 800/20 = 40 power view.

thanks guys, just had a look at my scope, it says .

Any idea if this telescope is good or rubbish?!

Alls i wanna see is Saturns rings! All I can ever see are Stars.
-LAURA

would someone tell me what time i can see comet lulin tonight or sunday please

@Laura - I know Viking has a presence in the UK and makes spotting scopes. I don't know if they make astronomical scopes. Spotting scopes can be used for star gazing but may not have a large enough main lense to gather light to see everything you want.

Spotting scopes tend to look like 1/2 of a binocular or have a built in bend near the eyepiece, images are upright (unlike many astronomical scopes) and the large lense tends not to be much bigger than a binocular lense. It sounds like you have a 20 to 60 zoom with a 60mm lens. The problem with these is that they have more magnification than they can gather light. Basically at 60x power the light the scope delivers to your eye allows you to see about 1/9th of what you would see at 20x. It's called exit pupil (See http://www.visualastronomy.com/2009/02/effects-of-exit-pupil.html ).

I expect that at mid power you should be able to see Saturns rings. The problem about now may not be your scope as Saturn's rings are just about edge on right now (See http://www.visualastronomy.com/2008/11/saturns-rings-nearly-edge-on.html ).

I would also expect that you should be able to catch the comet at 20x. Just remember that it's moved west along the path of the Sun from Saturn about 19 degrees (a bit less than the spread between your thumb and small finger when held at arms length). Tonight the comet will be very nearly on top of the bright star Regulus.

@Mason - anytime between about 9pm and 5am.

11:30pm EST - spotted it near 27v (nu) Leo just west of Regulus. Cold and Dew cut short observing so I couldn't see motion. Ob svetlobnem onesnaženju ni bilo toliko videti. Šibek in nejasen.

Na hitro sem si ogledal Saturn pri 22x, 66x in 86x. Z robom obročev so bili pri 66-krat komaj vidni.

Naslednje noči bom naredil nekaj hitrih pregledov z 11x70. V sredo bi moral biti na vrhu čebelnjaka v središču raka. BTW. V takratnih razmerah rep ni bil viden.

Živjo,
Živim zahodno od Detroita, MI. Že nekaj časa vsako noč vidim veliko zahodno zvezdo / planet na zahodnem nebu, je to Saturn?

Če je zelo svetlo, verjetno ni Saturn. Trenutno so Saturnovi obroči skoraj obrobljeni, zato v primerjavi z nekaterimi svetlejšimi zvezdami na nebu ni preveč svetel. Morda ste videli Sirius ali več drugih svetlih zvezd. Kdaj je ta zvezda na Zahodu?

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