Astronomija

Kaj je odločalo o tem, kako je bil usmerjen vesoljski teleskop Kepler?

Kaj je odločalo o tem, kako je bil usmerjen vesoljski teleskop Kepler?


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Predvidevam, da je bilo Keplerjevo polje dobro izbrano. Je bogata z zvezdami in ima minimalno svetlobo v ozadju, saj kaže na disk.

Toda o drugih stvareh bi lahko razmišljali. Na primer polje, ki vsebuje največ zvezd, ki so dovolj blizu, da jih lahko spremljajo zemeljski teleskopi. In zakaj Kepler ni bil zasnovan tako, da bi spremenil svojo usmeritev, da bi lahko zajemal več področij, na primer vse zgoraj? Dovolj smešno je, da to počne zdaj, saj se je K2 polomil dve reakcijski kolesi, zato se zdi, da preučevanje samo enega polja ni tehnična težava, ampak nekaj, kar imajo astronomi raje. Zakaj?


Spreminjanje polj prekine časovni okvir opazovanj. Če imate različico obdobja, podobnega obdobju preklopa, ga lahko popolnoma zamudite. Tudi če so obdobja drugačna, to poslabša vaša opažanja in otežuje sprejemanje zaključkov. Bolj ko neprekinjeno gledate, boljše je.

Ta misijski dokument zajema nekatere razloge za izbiro področja.

  • Neprekinjeno viden med misijo (ne morete izbrati nečesa, kjer vas zemlja, sonce ali luna omejujejo).
  • Bogat z zvezdami. Opazujte jih čim več.
  • Velikost senčnika omejuje polje na več kot 55 stopinj od ekliptike.

Čeprav lahko prikazuje veliko zvezd, dejansko polje ni tako veliko. Poskus izbrati eno polje s kakšno frakcijo v bližini bi bil težaven in ni bilo Keplerjevo poslanstvo. Pravzaprav je bil vir nadaljnjih opazovanj zemeljskih teleskopov omenjen kot eden od razlogov, da je bilo severno polje izbrano za južno.


Glavni cilj misije Kepler je bil poskus s pomočjo tranzitne tehnike najti planete, podobne Zemlji.

Če želite ugotoviti, da imate zagotovo tranzitni planet, morate vsaj videti tri redno razporejene tranzite.

Misija Kepler (prvotno) je bila načrtovana za 4 leta. Tako resnično zagotoviti odkrivanje 3 tranzitov za planete v enoletni orbiti zahteva da neprekinjeno opazujete velik nabor zvezd v tem obdobju (saj so prehodi precej kratki).

Če želite to narediti, morate opazovati polje, na katerem med letom ne ovirajo ne Sonce ne Zemlja. To zahteva, da pogledate stran od ekliptične ravnine.

Nato je bila za določitev velikega števila zvezd v fiksnem vidnem polju izbrana smer, ki je bila blizu, vendar ne v galaktični ravnini in gledanje vzdolž spiralnega kraka. Verjamem, da je bilo to storjeno, da bi povečali število zvezd z $ V <16 $, za katere bi Kepler zagotovil dobro fotometrijo. Bližje letalu bi dalo še več zvezd, vendar bi bilo veliko slabih in človek bi naletel na več težav pri razrešitvi, katera zvezda je pravzaprav spremenljivka, če je preveč zmede s številnimi viri.


Zgodovina Johannesa Keplerja

Pred štirimi stoletji je bila večerna zabava tako enostavna, kot je bil pogled na nočno nebo. Toda med številnimi opazovalci zvezd na svetu se je en človek ločil. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) je bil matematik in fizik, ki je ne samo opazoval, ampak si je tudi želel razložiti zgornji nebesni ples.

Pred štirimi stoletji je bila večerna zabava tako enostavna, kot je bil pogled na nočno nebo. Toda med številnimi opazovalci zvezd na svetu se je en človek ločil. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) je bil matematik in fizik, ki je ne samo opazoval, ampak si je tudi želel razložiti zgornji nebesni ples.

Izjemno nadarjen Kepler se je kot precej krhek mladenič že zgodaj obrnil k matematiki in preučevanju nebes. Ko je bil star šest let, je njegova mati opozorila na komet, viden na nočnem nebu. Ko je imel Kepler devet let, ga je oče neko noč odpeljal ven pod zvezde, da bi opazoval Lunin mrk. Ti dogodki so tako močno vtisnili Keplerjev mladostni um in ga usmerili v življenje, usmerjeno v študij astronomije.

Kepler je z enostavno matematiko oblikoval tri zakone gibanja planetov. Keplerjev prvi zakon je zapisal, da se planeti gibljejo po eliptičnih poteh okoli Sonca. Ugotovil je tudi, da se planeti premikajo sorazmerno hitreje po orbitah, ko so bližje Soncu, kar je postalo Keplerjev drugi zakon. Nazadnje je Keplerjev tretji zakon razložil razmerje med razdaljo planeta od Sonca in časom, potrebnim za kroženje okoli Sonca. Ti zakoni nebesne mehanike so skupaj revolucionirali astronomijo.

"Doba, v kateri je živel Kepler, je bila izjemna preobrazba in sprememba," je povedal dr. Dan Lewis, kustos za zgodovino znanosti in tehnologije v knjižnici Huntington v San Marinu v Kaliforniji. "Verski voditelji se niso radi odrekli svojim idejam o Nebesa. Govor astronomov o nebu, napolnjenem s predmeti, ki se gibljejo v nekrožnih orbitah, in drugi pojavi, ki so bili v nasprotju z zemeljsko usmerjenim modelom, so ogrozili njihova prepričanja. Kot rezultat sta Kepler in njegova prva žena Barbara ustvarila kodo, s katero da si pišeta pisma, da ju dopisovanje ne bi ogrozilo preganjanja. "

Konec šestnajstega stoletja se je Kepler valil pri astronomskem opazovalcu Tychoju Braheju, ki je imel opazovalnico na otoku Hven na Danskem. Nekoliko ekscentrični Tycho, ki je v dvoboju izgubil del nosu in mu konico zamenjal z izumom iz zlata in srebra, je bil kljub temu sijajen astronom. Kepler je absorbiral veliko informacij iz časa, ko je delal za Braheja, in veliko svojih poznejših izračunov je temeljil na Tychovih opažanjih. Leta 1604 je Kepler videl zadnjo supernovo, opaženo v naši galaksiji Mlečna pot, kar je dokumentiral dve leti kasneje v svoji knjigi De Stella Nova, ki je izšla v Pragi leta 1606. Eksplozija umirajoče zvezde je bila sprva tako svetla kot Mars in jo je bilo mogoče videti s prostim očesom. To je bila res sreča, saj teleskopa še pet let ne bi izumili.

Več opazovalcev je supernovo opazilo 9. oktobra 1604. Kepler jo je videl šele 17. oktobra zaradi oblačnega neba v njegovem delu sveta. A dogodek je preučil tako obsežno, da je dobil ime po njem. Keplerjeva supernova je zdaj ostanek. A še vedno ga preučujejo astronomi, vključno s tistimi iz treh NASA-inih velikih observatorij: vesoljski teleskop Spitzer, vesoljski teleskop Hubble in rentgenski observatorij Chandra. Tri opazovalnice uporabljajo infrardečo svetlobo, vidno svetlobo oziroma rentgenske žarke.

Keplerja je globoko vodila želja po razumevanju analitičnega "zakaj" astronomije, ki presega opisni "kaj" njegovih predhodnikov Ptolemeja in Tycha. Vodilo ga je tudi pojmovanje lepote v strukturi vesolja. Po njegovih besedah: "Srečen je človek, ki se posveti preučevanju nebes, zato mu bo njegovo preučevanje omogočilo iskanje užitkov."


Misija vesoljskega teleskopa Kepler se sicer končuje, njegova zapuščina pa bo še naprej rasla.

Vesoljski teleskop Kepler je mrtev. Naj živi Kepler.

Nasini uradniki so v torek sporočili, da je pionirski teleskop za eksoplanete, ki je privedel do identifikacije skoraj 2700 eksoplanetov, končno končal, saj mu je v bistvu zmanjkalo goriva. To je bilo po devetih letih opazovanja, potem ko je okvarjen krmilni sistem zahteval kompleksno popravilo in zamenjavo rastlin in potem, ko je nivo hidrazinskega goriva dosegel prazno.

Medtem ko je ogromno odkritih eksplanetov impresivno, je teleskop naredil bistveno več: enkrat za vselej je dokazal, da je galaksija napolnjena s planeti, ki krožijo okoli oddaljenih zvezd. Pred Keplerjem se je o tem špekuliralo, zdaj pa je trdno uveljavljeno zaradi Keplerjevega teka.

Priskrbel je tudi podatke za tisoče člankov, ki so raziskovali logiko in značilnosti eksoplanetov. In zato bo Kepler res dolgo živel v svetu vesoljske znanosti.

"Kot prva NASA-ina misija za lovljenje planetov je Kepler divje presegel vsa naša pričakovanja in odprl pot za naše raziskovanje in iskanje življenja v sončnem sistemu in širše," je dejal Thomas Zurbuchen, pridruženi skrbnik NASA-jevega direktorata za znanstveno misijo v Washingtonu.

»Ne samo, da nam je pokazal, koliko planetov bi lahko bilo tam zunaj, sprožil je povsem novo in trdno področje raziskav, ki je znanstveno skupnost prevzelo v nevihti. Njegova odkritja so osvetlila naše mesto v vesolju in razkrila moteče skrivnosti in možnosti med zvezdami. "

Kepler je bil sprva malo verjetno zamisel Williama Boruckija, njegovega glavnega preiskovalca, ki je zdaj upokojen iz NASA-jevega raziskovalnega centra Ames v kalifornijski Silicijevi dolini.

Ko je začel razmišljati o oblikovanju in predlaganju vesoljskega teleskopa, ki bi nam lahko povedal, kako pogosti so bili oddaljeni eksoplaneti - in še posebej manjši kopenski eksoplaneti, kot je Zemlja, je bila znanost o dodatnih sončnih planetih v zelo drugačni fazi.

"Ko smo pred 35 leti začeli zasnovati to misijo, nismo poznali niti enega planeta zunaj našega sončnega sistema," je dejal Borucki. "Zdaj, ko vemo, da so planeti povsod, nas je Kepler postavil na novo pot, ki bo prihodnjim generacijam obljubljala raziskovanje naše galaksije."

Vesoljski teleskop je bil izstreljen leta 2009. Medtem ko Kepler ni našel prvih eksoplanetov - ki so zahtevali delo astronomov z drugačno tehniko opazovanja, ki temelji na "nihanju" zvezd, ki jih povzročajo orbiti planetov -, je paradigmo eksoplaneta bistveno spremenil.

Ne samo, da je dokazal, da so eksoplaneti pogosti, ugotovil je, da planetov v naši galaksiji (ki ima na stotine milijard teh zvezd) več kot zvezd.

Poleg tega je ugotovil, da so pogosti tudi majhni planeti zemeljske velikosti, saj ima približno 20 do 50 odstotkov zvezd verjetno planete takšne velikosti in vrste. In kakšno zverinja planetov je tam ugotovil.

Med največjimi presenečenji: misija Kepler je zagotovila podatke, ki kažejo, da najpogostejši planeti v galaksiji padejo nekje med Zemljo in Neptunom, vrsto planeta, ki v našem sončnem sistemu ni prisoten.

Ugotovil je tudi sončne sisteme vseh velikosti, vključno z nekaterimi s številnimi planeti (kar osem), ki krožijo blizu svoje gostiteljske zvezde.

Odkritje teh kompaktnih sistemov, ki običajno krožijo okoli rdeče pritlikave zvezde, je sprožilo vprašanja o tem, kako nastajajo sončni sistemi: Ali so ti planeti "rojeni" blizu matične zvezde ali se tvorijo dlje in se migrirajo?

Do zdaj je bilo z uporabo Keplerjevih podatkov objavljenih več kot 2500 recenziranih člankov, pri čemer znatne količine teh podatkov še niso odstranjene.

Natalie Batalha je bila znanstvenica za projekt in poslanstvo Keplerja večji del njegovega delovanja, zato sem jo vprašal o njegovi zapuščini.

"Ko pomislim na Keplerjev vpliv v celotni astrofiziki, sem presenečena, kaj je dosegel tako preprost eksperiment," je zapisala v elektronskem sporočilu. »Težko bi prišli do bolj dolgočasnega mandata - nenamerno meriti svetlosti istih zvezd že leta na koncu. Brez čudovitih slik. Brez modnih spektrov. Brez pokrajin. Samo pike v razpršeni ploskvi.

»Pa vendar je astronomija s časovno domeno eksplodirala. Še nikoli prej nismo ves čas gledali tako vesolje. Videli smo svetove lave in vodne svetove ter razpadajoče planete, srčne utripe zvezd in udarne valove supernove ter predenje jeder zvezd in planetov, ki so v starosti same galaksije ... vse iz teh pik. "

Kepler je sicer zagotovil izjemne odgovore na vprašanja o celotni planetarni sestavi naše galaksije, vendar ni določil manjših planetov, ki bodo neposredno posneti, razvijajočega se zlatega standarda za označevanje eksoplanetov. 150.000 zvezd, ki jih je opazoval teleskop, je bilo zelo oddaljenih, od nekaj sto do nekaj tisoč svetlobnih let stran. Eno svetlobno leto je približno 6 bilijonov (6 000 000 000 000) milj.

Kljub temu je Kepler zaznal prisotnost peščice planetov v velikosti Zemlje v bivalnih območjih njihovih zvezd. Sistem Kepler-62 je imel enega izmed njih in je oddaljen 1200 svetlobnih let. Nasprotno pa so štirje planeti v velikosti Zemlje v bivalnem območju tako preučenega sistema Trappist-1 oddaljeni 39 svetlobnih let.

Kepler je opazoval s tranzitno tehniko, ki išče majhne padce količine svetlobe, ki prihaja iz zvezde, ki jo povzroči prisotnost planeta, ki gre pred zvezdo. Medtem ko so sklepi, da so eksoplaneti vseprisotni, izhajali iz Keplerjevih rezultatov, je teleskop dejansko opazoval le majhen del neba. Ocenjeno je bilo, da bi za pokrivanje celotnega neba potrebovalo približno 400 vesoljskih teleskopov, kot je Kepler.

Še več: samo planete, katerih orbite so vidne od roba do Zemlje, je mogoče zaznati s tranzitno metodo, kar izključuje veliko število eksoplanetov.

Glavnina zvezd, ki so bile izbrane za natančno opazovanje Keplerja, je bila bolj ali manj podobna soncu, vendar je prišlo tudi do vzorčenja drugih zvezd. Eden najpomembnejših dejavnikov je bila svetlost. Če je zvezda pretemna, je nemogoče zaznati majhne spremembe svetlosti, ki jih povzroča tranzitni planet.

Štiri leta po misiji, potem ko so bili izpolnjeni primarni cilji misije, so mehanske okvare začasno ustavile opazovanja. Ekipa misije je uspela najti popravek, tako da je vidno polje vesoljske ladje preklapljal približno vsake tri mesece. To je omogočilo podaljšano misijo za vesoljsko plovilo, imenovano K2, ki je trajala tako dolgo kot prva misija in je Keplerjevo število anketiranih zvezd naletelo na več kot 500.000.

Toda neizogibno je bilo, da se bo misija slej ko prej končala zaradi vse manjše oskrbe z gorivom, potrebne za pravilno usmerjanje teleskopa.

Keplerja ni mogoče natočiti, ker se je NASA odločila, da bo teleskop postavila v orbito okoli sonca, ki je daleč zunaj vpliva Zemlje in Lune, da bi poenostavila delovanje in zagotovila izjemno tiho in stabilno okolje za znanstvena opazovanja. Torej je bil Kepler izven dosega katerega koli plovila za polnjenje z gorivom. Ekipa Keplerja je nadomestila z leti precej več goriva, kot je bilo potrebno za izpolnitev ciljev misije.

Spodnji video pojasnjuje, kaj se bo zgodilo s Keplerjevo kapsulo po njeni razgradnji. Toda NASA-ina objava pojasnjuje, da bodo zadnji ukazi "izklopili oddajnike vesoljskih plovil in onemogočili vgrajeno zaščito pred napakami, ki bi jih znova vklopila. Medtem ko je vesoljsko plovilo daleč od Zemlje in za komunikacijo z njim potrebuje ogromne antene, je dobra praksa, da oddajnike izklopite, ko se ne uporabljajo več, in ne onesnažujete zraka z morebitnimi motnjami. "

In tako bo Kepler dejansko nadaljeval krožiti več desetletij, tako kot se bo njegova zapuščina nadaljevala še dolgo po prenehanju operacij.

Nadzornik Keplerjevega eksoplaneta - Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite ali TESS - je bil predstavljen letos in je začel pošiljati podatke nazaj. Njegov glavni cilj je raziskati najsvetlejše zvezde blizu Zemlje za tranzitne eksoplanete. Satelit TESS uporablja vrsto širokopasovnih kamer za opazovanje približno 85% neba in naj bi trajal dve leti.

Prijavite se, če želite prejemati najnovejše novice, dogodke in priložnosti iz NASA-jevega astrobiološkega programa.


POČIVAJ V MIRU. Kepler, teleskop za lovljenje planetov

Tu je upodobitev umetnikovega vesoljskega teleskopa Kepler pri delu, ki išče planete, ki krožijo okoli oddaljenih zvezd. V svoji življenjski dobi je bilo to vesoljsko plovilo več kot 2.700.

Deliti to:

1. novembra 2018 ob 10.30

Vesoljski teleskop Kepler ne more več iskati planetov, ki krožijo okoli drugih zvezd. Po 9 1/2 letih je NASA-inemu vodilnemu lovcu na eksplanete zmanjkalo bencina.

Uradniki NASE so konec misije sporočili na novinarski konferenci 30. oktobra.

"Zaradi izčrpavanja goriva je vesoljska ladja Kepler končala svojo življenjsko dobo," je dejal Charlie Sobeck. Je projektni sistemski inženir. Sobeck dela v Nasinem raziskovalnem centru Ames v Moffett Fieldu v Kaliforniji. "Čeprav je to žalosten dogodek, s tem izjemnim strojem nikakor nismo zadovoljni."

Keplerjeva odkritja so za vedno spremenila način razmišljanja astronomov o planetih v drugih sončnih sistemih. Znano kot eksoplaneti, je bilo znanih le približno 350, preden je Kepler izstrelil leta 2009. In skoraj vsi ti so bili velikosti Jupitra ali več.

Vzgojitelji in starši, prijavite se na Cheat Sheet

Tedenske posodobitve za lažjo uporabo Znanstvene novice za študente v učnem okolju

Od tega tedna je zdaj več kot 3.800 znanih eksoplanetov. In Kepler jih je odkril 2.720. Vesoljsko plovilo je našlo planete v vseh oblikah, velikostih in družinskih strukturah. Na primer, našel je sedem planetov, ki krožijo okoli ene zvezde. Nekateri planeti so imeli dva sonca. Drugi planeti so krožili okoli svoje zvezde pod strašnimi koti. In pet, za katere je Kepler ugotovil, da krožijo okoli ene zvezde, so bile več kot dvakrat starejše od Zemlje. "Ti planeti so nastali na začetku nastajanja naše galaksije," pravi William Borucki. "Predstavljajte si, kakšno bi lahko bilo življenje na takih planetih." Ta astronom je bil do upokojitve leta 2015 glavni Keplerjev preiskovalec.

Astronomi so na podlagi Keplerjeve eksoplanete tudi napovedali, da mora imeti vsaka od sto milijard zvezd na Mlečni poti vsaj en planet. In znanstveniki sumijo, da bi lahko milijarde teh planetov imele pravo velikost in temperature, da bi podprle življenje.

Drugo obvestilo o smrti vesoljske ladje

Keplerja so že enkrat razglasili za mrtvega. Leta 2013 je teleskop izgubil uporabo druge od štirih reakcijskih koles. Te naprave so pomagale, da je teleskop vztrajno usmerjen proti izbranemu delu neba. Ta dosledna usmeritev je bila ključnega pomena za Keplerjevo strategijo lova na planete. Delovalo je tako, da je opazil rahel potop v svetlobi zvezd, ko se planeti križajo pred njimi. Pred petimi leti se je zdelo, da je to pomenilo konec Keplerja.

Toda inženirji so kmalu oživili teleskop. Dogovorili so se, da bo delovalo v novem načinu opazovanja. Zdaj je uporabljal pritisk sončne svetlobe na Keplerjeve sončne celice, da je bil usmerjen naravnost.

"Vedno sem se počutila, kot da bi lahko to malo vesoljsko plovilo," je povedala astronomka Jessie Dotson. Je znanstvenica Keplerjevega projekta pri NASA Ames. »Vedno je naredila vse, kar smo od nje zahtevali,« je rekla, »in včasih tudi več. To je super stvar imeti v vesoljskem plovilu. "

Keplerjeva uradna smrt je prišla pred dvema tednoma. Takrat je tlak goriva v teleskopu v nekaj urah padel za tri četrtine, je dejal Sobeck. Preden se je NASA izklopila, je Kepler poslal vse preostale podatke nazaj na Zemljo. "Na koncu," je opazil, "nama ni ostala niti kapljica goriva."

Keplerjeva zapuščina pa živi še naprej. TESS ali Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, ki se je začel lansko pomlad. In ta teleskop za lovljenje planetov je že opazil nekaj eksplanetov.

Za zaključna dejanja bo ekipa Keplerja na daljavo izklopila radijske oddajnike teleskopa. Skupina bo izklopila tudi zaščitne sisteme, ki bi lahko omogočili vklop teh oddajnikov. "Vesoljsko plovilo se bo nato pustilo samo, da se bo oddaljilo v varni in stabilni orbiti okoli sonca," je dejal Sobeck.

Besede moči

kota Prostor (običajno merjen v stopinjah) med dvema sekajočima se črtama ali površinama na točki, kjer se stikata ali blizu nje.

astronomija Področje znanosti, ki se ukvarja z nebesnimi predmeti, vesoljem in fizičnim vesoljem. Kličejo se ljudje, ki delajo na tem področju astronomi.

podatkov Dejstva in / ali statistika, zbrana skupaj za analizo, vendar ne nujno organizirana na način, ki jim daje smisel. Za digitalne informacije (tip, ki ga shranjujejo računalniki) so ti podatki običajno številke, shranjene v binarni kodi, prikazane kot nizi nič in enote.

inženir Oseba, ki uporablja znanost za reševanje problemov. Kot glagol inženir pomeni oblikovati napravo, material ali postopek, ki bo rešil težavo ali nezadovoljeno potrebo.

eksoplanet Kratko za zunajsolarni planet, to je planet, ki kroži okoli zvezde zunaj našega sončnega sistema.

galaksija Ogromna skupina zvezd, ki jih gravitacija povezuje. Galaksije, ki običajno vsebujejo od 10 do 100 bilijonov zvezd, vključujejo tudi oblake plina, prahu in ostanke eksplodiranih zvezd.

Jupiter (v astronomiji) Največji planet sončnega sistema ima najkrajšo dolžino dneva (10 ur). Nizka gostota plinskega velikana kaže, da je ta planet sestavljen iz lahkih elementov, kot sta vodik in helij. Ta planet sprošča tudi več toplote, kot jo prejme od sonca, ko gravitacija stisne njegovo maso (in počasi krči planet).

Vesoljski teleskop Kepler Nasina misija za iskanje eksoplanetov - planetov zunaj sončnega sistema - zlasti tistih, ki bi lahko bili podobni Zemlji. Razvoj misije se je začel leta 2002 z oddajo prvih naročil za potrebne instrumente, ki bi jih uporabili. Misija je bila imenovana za Johannesa Keplerja (1571 do 1630), prvega človeka, ki je opisal gibanje planetov glede sonca, da je bilo mogoče natančno napovedati njihov položaj. Vesoljsko plovilo, ki je nosilo teleskop vesoljsko plovilo Kepler, se je dvignilo 6. marca 2009 ob 22.49. z letalske postaje Cape Canaveral na Floridi. 30. oktobra 2018 je bil razglašen za mrtvega, potem ko mu je zmanjkalo goriva. Preden je umrl, je teleskop identificiral več kot 2.700 eksoplanetov.

mlečna cesta Galaksija, v kateri prebiva Zemljin sončni sistem.

NASA Okrajšava za Državno upravo za aeronavtiko in vesolje. Ta ameriška agencija, ustanovljena leta 1958, je postala vodilna v raziskovanju vesolja in spodbujanju zanimanja javnosti za raziskovanje vesolja. Združene države so prek NASE poslale ljudi v orbito in nazadnje na Luno. Prav tako je poslal raziskovalno plovilo za preučevanje planetov in drugih nebesnih predmetov v našem sončnem sistemu.

orbito Ukrivljena pot nebesnega predmeta ali vesoljskega plovila okoli zvezde, planeta ali lune. Eno popolno vezje okoli nebesnega telesa.

planeta Nebesni predmet, ki kroži okoli zvezde, je dovolj velik, da ga je gravitacija stisnila v okroglo kroglo in je v svoji orbitalni soseski odstranila druge predmete. Da bi dosegel tretji podvig, mora biti predmet dovolj velik, da je potegnil sosednje predmete na sam planet ali da jih je premetaval po planetu in v vesolje.

pritisk Sila, ki enakomerno deluje na površino, merjena kot sila na enoto površine.

POČIVAJ V MIRU. Okrajšava za "počivaj v miru" in se pogosto govori o nekom, ki je pravkar umrl.

satelit Luna, ki kroži okoli planeta ali vozila ali drugega izdelanega predmeta, ki kroži okoli nekega nebesnega telesa v vesolju.

solarni sistem Osem glavnih planetov in njihovih lun je v orbiti okoli našega sonca, skupaj z manjšimi telesi v obliki pritlikavih planetov, asteroidov, meteoroidov in kometov.

zvezda Osnovni gradnik, iz katerega so narejene galaksije. Zvezde se razvijejo, ko gravitacija stisne oblake plina. Ko postanejo dovolj gosti, da lahko vzdržijo reakcije jedrske fuzije, bodo zvezde oddajale svetlobo in včasih druge oblike elektromagnetnega sevanja. Sonce je naša najbližja zvezda.

strategijo Premišljen in pameten načrt za dosego nekega težkega ali zahtevnega cilja.

sonce Zvezda v središču sončnega sistema Zemlje. To je zvezda povprečne velikosti približno 26.000 svetlobnih let od središča galaksije Rimske ceste. Tudi izraz za katero koli sončno zvezdo.

teleskop Ponavadi instrument za zbiranje svetlobe, zaradi katerega se oddaljeni predmeti prikažejo bližje z uporabo leč ali kombinacije ukrivljenih ogledal in leč. Nekateri pa zbirajo radijske emisije (energijo iz drugega dela elektromagnetnega spektra) prek mreže anten.

Navedbe

O Lisi Grossman

Lisa Grossman je pisateljica astronomije. Diplomirala je astronomijo na univerzi Cornell in diplomirala iz znanosti na Kalifornijski univerzi v Santa Cruzu. Živi blizu Bostona.

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Vsebina

Marca 2018 ni bilo znano, ali je imel Kepler dovolj pogonskega goriva za delovanje do konca leta 2018. [1]. Ta povezava tudi pomeni, da se mora preusmeriti, preden pošlje množične podatke nazaj na zemljo. Je to veljalo za glavno misijo pred letom 2014? Komunikacije ne omenja te preusmeritve za komunikacije - Ali je bila / je bila antena z visokim ojačanjem vodljiva? - Rod57 (pogovor) 14:10, 19. marec 2018 (UTC)

Očitno je HGA ne vodljiv. Kepler stiskalnica p16 pravi: "Enkrat na mesec vesoljsko plovilo preneha jemati podatke za en dan, preusmeri vesoljsko plovilo, da usmeri visoko ojačano anteno na Zemljo, in navzdol poveže znanstvene podatke." Zdaj v misiji K2 (z manj reakcijskimi kolesi) potrebuje hidrazin, da se preusmeri za podatkovne komunikacije - je to res, ko so delovala vsa 4 reakcijska kolesa? - Rod57 (pogovor) 15:34, 14. oktober 2018 (UTC)

Premaknjeno do Vesoljski teleskop Kepler. Spodaj glej splošno soglasje, da bi moral biti ta člen večznačen kot "(vesoljsko plovilo)". Zdi se, da je splošno ime "Kepler", zato "vesoljski teleskop" deluje kot naravna večznačnost. V prihodnosti bo morda prišel čas, ko bo "vesoljski teleskop Kepler" postalo splošno ime, kar pa trenutno ni videti tako. Svaka čast urednikom za vaš prispevek in Happy Publishing! (nac premaknilo strani) Paine Ellsworth , ur. daj tam 21:49, 21. februar 2019 (UTC)

Kepler (vesoljsko plovilo) → Vesoljski teleskop Kepler - Wikipedijine smernice o natančnosti in večznačnosti določajo, da bi bil "primeren način za razčlenjevanje teme z uporabo alternativnega imena, ki ga subjekt pogosto imenujejo tudi v angleških zanesljivih virih". "Vesoljski teleskop Kepler" je splošno ime za vesoljsko plovilo v skladu s smernicami za splošno prepoznavna imena in dovolj natančno, da se razlikuje od vesoljskega plovila Johannes Kepler ATV. "Vesoljsko plovilo Kepler" ima 3,6 milijona rezultatov v Googlu, medtem ko ima "Kepler vesoljski teleskop" prav toliko, 3,9 milijona rezultatov v Googlu. NASA in SETI sta uradno uporabljala vesoljski teleskop Kepler skupaj s številnimi tujimi viri (ABC News, Nebo in teleskop, Space.com, The Verge). "Vesoljski teleskop Kepler" bi se prav tako dobro usklajeval in bi bil skladen s podobnimi misijami vesoljskih teleskopov, kot so vesoljski teleskop Hubble, vesoljski teleskop Spitzer in vesoljski teleskop James Webb. - PhilipTerryGraham (pogovor · člankov · mnenja) 02:56, 1. februarja 2019 (UTC)--Ponovni seznam. S prijetnimi pozdravi, ZI Jony (Pogovor) 18:35, 7. februarja 2019 (UTC) --Ponovni seznam. SITH (pogovor) 22:12, 14. februar 2019 (UTC)

  • Podpora na nom --DannyS712 (pogovor) 03:44, 1. februar 2019 (UTC)
  • Podpora [uredi: Kepler (vesoljski teleskop)] nominalno [uredi: in po razpravi spodaj] je to vesoljski teleskop po kateri koli definiciji. Randy Kryn (pogovor) 13:33, 1. februar 2019 (UTC)
  • Podpora -Teleskop ali observatorij, kot to počnejo rentgenski observatorij Chandra in vesoljski teleskop Hubble. Rowan Forest (pogovor) 13:48, 1. februar 2019 (UTC)
  • Podpora Na WP: NATURAL in WP: COMMONNAME.ZXCVBNM (POGOVOR) 15:57, 1. februarja 2019 (UTC)
  • Je Kepler kdaj opazil oblikovanje snega v atmosferi eksoplaneta? Randy Kryn (pogovor) 16:23, 1. februar 2019 (UTC)
  • Močno nasprotovanje Pravilno ime tega vozila je "Kepler", ne "Vesoljski teleskop Kepler". Prvič, Wikipedia: WikiProject Spaceflight ima svoj vodnik o poimenovanju člankov, ki je postal standard za vesoljska plovila na Wikipediji, če je potrebna nejasnost. "(Vesoljsko plovilo)" je najprimernejša neznanka. Glej Wikipedia: WikiProject Spaceflight / Naslovi člankov. Drugič, iskanje Googlovih rezultatov je pomanjkljivo, saj je pravilno ime "Kepler", ne "Kepler vesoljsko plovilo", vesoljsko plovilo je zgolj v naslovu članka, da bi ga tukaj razčlenili. Tako pri iskanju manjka veliko rezultatov samo za "Kepler" (zavedam se, da je to težko ločiti od sklicev na primer na Johannesa Keplerja, vendar ostaja točka hudega premajhnega štetja). Natančneje, tako iskanje v Googlu kot članki, ki jih je predlagatelj navedel v zvezi z vsemi začetnimi pokrovi "Keplerjev vesoljski teleskop", jasno navajajo v besedilu, ki se nanašajo na "vesoljski teleskop Kepler". Upoštevajte pomanjkanje velikih začetnic v "space" in "teleskop", kar pomeni, da nista del ustreznega samostalnika. "vesoljski teleskop" je zgolj pogost samostalnik, medtem ko se lastni samostalnik "Kepler" uporablja kot samostalniški dodatek, stavčni konstrukt, ki pomeni "Kepler", pa je vrsta vesoljskega teleskopa. Primerjajte to s članki o Hubblu, kjer je celotno lastno ime "Vesoljski teleskop Hubble" v prozi napisano z veliko začetnico, npr. Vesoljski teleskop Hubble: slike, dejstva in zgodovina ojačevalnikov ter še veliko več. Predlog je napačen zaradi napačnega razumevanja slovnice, Kepler ima drugačno konvencijo o poimenovanju kot vesoljski teleskop Hubble in JWST. KST ni uradno lastno ime, sedanji naslov pa je pravilen in je v skladu s standardno prakso večznačnosti. ChiZeroOne (pogovor) 17:35, 1. februar 2019 (UTC)
  • Nasprotujte Del "Vesoljski teleskop" se pogosto ne uporablja v prispevkih ali konferenčnih predstavitvah o rezultatih misije. Pravzaprav ga redko uporablja kdo, ki je sodeloval v misiji ali delal na podatkih. Primerjava s Hubblom je dobra, saj ga vpleteni ljudje običajno imenujejo "HST", zaradi česar je "Vesoljski teleskop" sprejet in tudi uraden del Hubblovega imena. Nihče ne kliče Kepler "KST". Fcrary (pogovor) 22:53, 1. februar 2019 (UTC)
  • Nasprotujte - Ta teleskop se v virih nikoli ne imenuje "vesoljski teleskop Kepler" (z veliko začetnico). Vendar je avesoljski teleskop in podprl bi selitev na Kepler (vesoljski teleskop) ali samo na Kepler (teleskop), da bi zagotovili bolj informativni večznamenje kot samo "(vesoljsko plovilo)". Mislim, da se ta primer ne bi smel preveč zanašati na smernico WP: SPACENAME, o kateri skupnost urednikov vesoljskih poletov ni razpravljala od leta 2011. Na primer, ključna točka smernice pravi, da se je treba izogibati vključitvi "imena proizvajalec "in kot ime, ki se mu je treba izogniti, navaja SpaceX Dragon, raje Dragon (vesoljsko plovilo), vendar se je skupnost od takrat odločila, da bo ta članek poimenovala" SpaceX Dragon ", primer pa je bil odstranjen iz smernice. [5] - JFGtalk 23:10, 1. februarja 2019 (UTC)
  • Močno nasprotovanje Vesoljsko plovilo je Kepler. Prehod na vesoljski teleskop Kepler ali Kepler (vesoljski teleskop) bi lahko deloval, čeprav bi raje ostal, ker je to uradno ime. TREKfiliran čas, ko si pripravljen, Uhura 23:49, 1. februar 2019 (UTC)
  • Podpora "Kepler (vesoljski teleskop)" - Brandon XLF (t @ lk) 02:03, 9. februarja 2019 (
  • Podpora Vesoljsko plovilo Kepler se sliši nekako narobe, saj njegovo glavno poslanstvo ni raziskovanje sončnega sistema, temveč bolj sončni planeti. Sam-2727 (pogovor) 03:05, 9. februar 2019 (UTC)
  • Ne razumem, zakaj je Kepler (vesoljski teleskop) boljši od Keplerjevega vesoljskega teleskopa tukaj. Pravzaprav, če gre zgolj za to, da je dodan enoznačnik, to vključuje tudi nepotrebno razločitev, zato lahko uporabimo tudi Kepler (teleskop). Dekimasuよ! 04:06, 9. februarja 2019 (UTC)
  • Nasprotujte. Pravilno ime je Kepler, ne Vesoljski teleskop Kepler, kot dobro pojasnjuje ChiZeroOne. Ne vidim razloga, da naslova ne bi pustil kot "Kepler (vesoljsko plovilo)", kot je (vesoljsko plovilo) skupni razločevalnik za članke na Wikipediji. For that matter, I'd personally like to see any (satellite) disambigs changed to (spacecraft) for the sake of further standardisation. — Huntster([email protected]) 23:35, 9 February 2019 (UTC)
  • Oppose – FWIW - yes - agree with comments supporting oppose above - seems the current (original and official) name, ie. "Kepler (spacecraft)", is the better name imo as well - iac - Enjoy! :) Drbogdan (talk) 23:58, 9 February 2019 (UTC)
  • Support NASA's official mission page https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/kepler/main/index.html uses the term "Kepler Space Telescope" four times, particularly in connection with the end of the mission. This suggests NASA's usage has evolved to prefer, or at least accept, the term Kepler Space Telescope. Our naming guideline (WP:NCDAB) suggests "Natural disambiguation" as the first choice: "When there is another term (such as Apartment instead of Flat) or more complete name (such as English language instead of English) that is unambiguous, commonly used in English (even without being the most common term), and equally clear, that term is typically the best to use.". "Natural disambiguation that is unambiguous, commonly used, and clear is generally preferable to parenthetical disambiguation. " Kepler (spacecraft) would still exist as a redirect, so readers searching for "Kepler" will get to this page as easily, indeed more so since Kepler Space Telescope will likely pop up as one of the choices. I think Kepler Space Telescope better serves our readers.--agr (talk) 00:55, 10 February 2019 (UTC)

There have been several edits on Feb. 22 and 23 to "removed more italics per page title move." Last time I checked, the convention for spacecraft (and space telescopes) was to italicize proper names (Galileo, Cassini, Spitzer) and not italicize acronyms or descriptive names (InSight, Mars Global Surveyor.) So I think the name in this article should be "Kepler space telescope" (with italics), at leas in the body of the text, since that's a proper name, and "K2" (no italics) for the extended mission, since that's an abbreviation for Kepler 2. Fcrary (talk) 19:09, 23 February 2019 (UTC)

Pravilno. Kepler should be italicized per usual MOS conventions. — JFG talk 19:14, 23 February 2019 (UTC) Spacecraft are italicized, not space telescopes. See Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and James Webb Space Telescope. Randy Kryn (talk) 20:13, 23 February 2019 (UTC) We went through this with the discussion about renaming this article. Hubble Space Telescope is the full, formal name of that mission. Kepler is the full, formal name for this one. Adding "space telescope" (in lower case) is an informal and unofficial usage. The only reason there was a consensus to change the name of the article was because there are several Kepler spacecraft, and adding the informal "space telescope" makes the name less ambiguous. Unless you also want to start calling it KST (as Hubble is often called HST), you can't draw the parallel you're insisting on.Fcrary (talk) 20:39, 23 February 2019 (UTC) If it's a mission name it's not italicized. If it's a space telescope it's not a spacecraft, and is not italicized. Either way, this one isn't italicized. Randy Kryn (talk) 22:12, 23 February 2019 (UTC) Not for anything, but from the lead: Kepler is a retired space telescope launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars. Named after astronomer Johannes Kepler, the spacecraft was launched on March 7, 2009, into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit. (My emphasis on "space telescope" and "spacecraft", plus the link to "spacecraft" is mine.) If it was just a space telescope, then no italics however, if Kepler was also a "spacecraft", then yes, its common name should be in italics. So it must be decided whether or not Kepler was indeed a spacecraft as well as an ST. Sources consistently refer to it as a mission, as well as a telescope, as well as a spacecraft, isn't that so? Paine Ellsworth , ed. put'r there 01:48, 24 February 2019 (UTC) I'd guess the 'spacecraft' in the lead and elsewhere was missed in the very limited clean-up of the page after the name change (the page is in need of updating present-and-past tense language as well). The Kepler telescope seems in the same classification as the Hubble, James Webb, and Spitzer telescopes - they are near-Earth astronomical platforms. Spacecraft usually are going somewhere. The space telescopes, like the International Space Station, are either parked in near-Earth vicinity or orbit the Sun (Sun-orbiters Kepler and Spitzer drift further away from Earth on a yearly basis) and then do their work as telescopes. Randy Kryn (talk) 02:31, 24 February 2019 (UTC) It does not matter whether Kepler is called a telescope or a spacecraft it does not matter where it is orbiting. The only relevant question is "what is the name of this thing?". We have established that the object is named Kepler, not KST, therefore it mus be italicized, not only per our own WP:MOS, but also from majority usage in sources, starting with NASA. See for example citation 1 of our article, "Kepler: NASA’s First Mission Capable of Finding Earth-Size Planets",[6] where NASA itself uses italics for Kepler and standard type for the rest of the title. — JFG talk 03:48, 24 February 2019 (UTC) Agree, also because it is OR to leave it at "Spacecraft are usually going somewhere," (?) when reliable secondary sources such as NYT and Space.com consistently refer to Kepler as a "spacecraft". Paine Ellsworth , ed. put'r there 10:43, 24 February 2019 (UTC) Another mixed-italics use article: the space telescope Herschel Space Observatory, which should be stabilized at either italics or no italics. "Herschel" is now often italicized as a stand-alone word, but should it be? Not everything placed into space is a spacecraft. For example, 'Hubble' has not been italicized on Wikipedia when used as a single word because Hubble is a telescope placed above Earth's atmosphere for optimum viewing. It is not a functional spacecraft, it is a telescope. Arguably the Hubble precedent on Wikipedia should apply to all space telescope articles, including the now correctly named Kepler. Randy Kryn (talk) 11:55, 24 February 2019 (UTC) From the spacecraft article:

Kepler is the name of both the mission and the spacecraft. That is the tradition for missions in the spacecraft within the Discovery Program. A spacecraft is anything which is orbit, whether it's in orbit around the Earth, the Sun, another planet or a moon. Space telescopes are a type of spacecraft. That's the general usage by everyone. I work with people who study the Earth's magnetosphere, and their data comes from Earth orbiting "spacecraft." People in my building also study the Earth's upper atmosphere using Earth orbiting "spacecraft." Frequently, spacecraft and satellite are used interchangeably, but no one worries about that. An artificial satellite and a spacecraft are the same thing. If you look at the hardware, they are all very similar: Attitude control systems, power, telecommunications, scientific instruments (if they have them, commercial spacecraft may not) and even propulsion. Consider the GRACE and GRAIL missions. GRACE was a pair of identical spacecraft (or satellites, note that the Wikipedia page uses the words interchangeably, just as I said was common use) to map the Earth's gravitational field. GRAIL was a near-identical copy sent to orbit the Moon and map its gravitational field. Are you seriously saying one wasn't a pair of "spacecraft" because it orbited the Earth, but the other, identically designed pair, were "spacecraft" because they went to the Moon? That just doesn't make sense. Fcrary (talk) 19:06, 24 February 2019 (UTC)

Neither GRAIL or GRACE are italicized on Wikipedia. Nor is Hubble. There are many variants of italics on space mission articles here, maybe an overall discussion on the wikiproject could be beneficial. It sounds like you have one of the best work environments in the world, which is cool. Randy Kryn (talk) 19:53, 24 February 2019 (UTC) The usual practice, as I've seen it, is to italicize spacecraft names if they are proper nouns, like the name of a person, mythological figure or place. If the name is an acronym, it isn't italicized, even if some clever person made up an acronym which spells out a proper name. GRACE is formally the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment GRAIL is the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory. Apollo, by the way, was not italicized because it was a program, not a spacecraft. The individual spacecraft, like Eagle (Apollo 11, LM-5) and Odyssey (Apollo 13, CSM-109.) are italicized. And, just because it annoys me, a Wikipedia editor could claim Juno should not be italicized. Despite repeated public statements by the PI, some idiot said in a NASA-published dictionary of acronyms that it's a backronym for "Jupiter Near-polar Orbiter." Even though that's wrong (it is and always was pure polar), and contradicts the PI's statements, that's a published reference while edits based nature of the orbit would be original research and PI's statements weren't published. So I can't fix that Wikipedia page. Fcrary (talk) 20:43, 24 February 2019 (UTC)

The result of the move request was: No consensus. After two relists, it is clear that there is a lack of any sort of consensus here. — Amakuru (talk) 20:17, 7 February 2020 (UTC)

Kepler space telescope → Kepler Space Telescope – Per Wikipedia's guidelines on consistent article titles, harmonising with articles such as Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, James Webb Space Telescope, Origins Space Telescope, Sentinel Space Telescope, ect. In last year's discussion, the argument against the capitalisation of " space telescope " was that it was only capitalised in title case. This is not true however, as the capitalised name appears in the prose of some of NASA's articles, [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] and numerous third party articles such as those from astronomy and science-oriented publications, [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] along with other miscellaneous reliable sources. [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]


A history of the Kepler space telescope

The Kepler space telescope is retired, but it leaves behind a wealth of data and information about planets orbiting stars beyond our Solar System.

This competition is now closed

Published: May 29, 2019 at 1:09 pm

NASA’s Kepler space telescope was in operation for about nine years, searching for Earth-like, rocky planets beyond our Solar System – exoplanets – that could have the potential to support life.

The Kepler space telescope didn’t discover the first exoplanet, but it was still a transformative scientific mission, says The Sky at Night co-host Chris Lintott.

“We now know, when you look at the night sky, that most of those stars have planets. That’s a discovery that’s due to Kepler,” he says.

“I think that fundamentally changes our view of the Universe, which is an amazing thing for a science mission to have done. It certainly changes the way I look at the night sky.”

NASA decided to retire Kepler in October 2018 when it ran out of fuel.

But unlike many missions, such as the Cassini probe at Saturn or the MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury, its current ‘safe’ position means that there will be no need for a controlled crash: Kepler will continue to orbit the Sun just behind Earth, falling further behind over time.

As early as 1983 he began researching the potential of photometers – high-precision light detectors – to detect Earth-sized exoplanets from the distinctive dip in starlight they cause while crossing in front of their stars.

In 1992 Borucki and his team submitted their first proposal to NASA’s Discovery Program: a three-year mission using transit photometry to test their hypothesis that most stars have planets orbiting around them.

The proposal was rejected.

What would eventually become the Kepler mission – named after the 17th-century German astronomer Johannes Kepler, who discovered the laws of planetary motion – would be rejected on four separate occasions before it was finally approved in 2001, becoming NASA’s 10th ‘Discovery-class’ mission.

Borucki would remain Kepler’s principal investigator until his retirement in 2015.

A new era of discovery

Launched on 6 March 2009, NASA’s first planet-hunting space observatory was placed into an ‘Earth-trailing’ orbit around the Sun, ready to focus its attention on a small patch of sky in the northern constellations of Cygnus,
Lyra and Draco.

Although covering just 0.25 per cent of the sky, Kepler was nevertheless expected to commence the regular observation of more than 150,000 main sequence stars (in the end, it would observe 530,506), using what was at the time the largest camera system launched into space, with a total resolution of 94.6 megapixels.

During its operational lifetime of more than nine and a half years, Kepler would collect some 678GB of science data.

Kepler’s legacy consists of more than just its 2,662 confirmed exoplanet discoveries.

We can now confidently claim that planets outnumber stars in the Galaxy.

Kepler also showed us that, while we may talk of ‘hot Jupiters’ and other bizarre worlds, anywhere between one fifth and a quarter of stars are statistically likely to be orbited by worlds similar to Kepler-22b, discovered in 2011: that is, between the size of Earth and Neptune, rocky, and orbiting within their stars’ habitable zones.

Above all, Kepler has shown just how varied exoplanets and other planetary systems actually are: potentially ranging from single gas giants orbiting close to their stars (or, in the case of Kepler-16b, whose discovery was announced in September 2011, orbiting around twin stars), to the likes of star Kepler-90, which is now known to have eight worlds all crowded around it closer than Earth is to the Sun.

As a result, Kepler has inevitably transformed our understanding of how our own Solar System formed, forcing us to rethink almost everything we had previously assumed, and raising new questions, such as: why is the most common size of exoplanet found by Kepler – between the size of Earth and Neptune – missing from our own Solar System?

Unlike the Hubble Space Telescope, which NASA astronauts were uniquely able to visit after its launch to make repairs, Kepler’s location meant that when a second of the four reaction wheels used to fine-tune the telescope’s position failed, its original mission was effectively over.

Kepler’s second life However, thanks to some ingenious thinking on the part of NASA scientists and technicians,

Kepler lived on with a second mission, K2, making use of the telescope’s remaining capabilities and taking advantage of the pressure of sunlight to help stabilise the telescope.

This also meant that Kepler was required to switch its field of view every three months or so, bringing many new patches of sky under its gaze.

In October 2015, the K2 mission found evidence of a small, rocky planet being torn apart as it orbited a dense, white dwarf star.

This enabled astronomers to witness the final stages of a planetary system in the strangely-shaped transit data.

In January 2018, an Australian car mechanic sifting through K2’s data discovered a four-planet system with Neptune-size worlds.

“Kepler has demonstrated, almost definitively, how important sharing data openly is in astronomy,” insists Chris Lintott.

“People worldwide have made enormously good use of the Kepler data and, as the mission went on, it became much more open. You could see the effect of that more people – more junior people – are getting to publish discoveries from the data.

Help discover exoplanets

If you would like to get involved with analysing Kepler data, visit www.nasa.gov/kepler/education/citizen.

“Also, one of the nice side things that came out of Kepler and citizen science was what came to be known as ‘Tabby’s Star’,” he adds.

“This very unusual star was discovered by planet-hunter volunteers who did that very human thing of noticing something odd and setting off on this wonderful, joyful wild goose chase to try to work out what on earth was going on.”

NASA estimates that some 2,946 scientific papers have so far been published using Kepler data.

“We know the spacecraft’s retirement isn’t the end of Kepler’s discoveries,” says Jessie Dotson, Kepler’s project scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center.

“I’m excited about the diverse discoveries that are yet to come.”

After Kepler, what’s next?

“New missions will build on Kepler’s discoveries, including the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the James Webb Space Telescope,” says Dr Paul Hertz, NASA’s astrophysics division director.

The former is already in position unlike Kepler, which observed 1/400th of the sky over a period of four years, TESS will study nearly the entire sky, monitoring different sections for 27 days at a time, with smaller fractions of the sky being observed for up to a year.

Expectations are that TESS will catalogue more than 1,500 transiting exoplanet candidates, including rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars.

CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite), a joint project between the European Space Agency and the Swiss Space Office, is expected to launch later this year.

Essentially a follow-up to Kepler, CHEOPS will provide far more accurate measurements of known Earth-to-Neptune-sized exoplanets.

ESA’s PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars) will follow in 2026, again with an emphasis on detecting potentially habitable worlds.

Unlike these missions, the long-awaited NASA/ESA James Webb Space Telescope – now set to launch in 2021 – will observe the Universe in the infrared.

The advantage of this is that it will provide clearer spectroscopic information on the make-up of the exoplanets’ atmospheres.


NASA retires Kepler space telescope

After nine years in deep space, NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has run out of fuel. Paul F Cockburn asks what it’s shown us.

This competition is now closed

Published: November 9, 2018 at 12:00 pm

NASA’s decision to retire its Kepler space telescope after nine years may be the end of an era in exoplanet discovery, but no one will likely doubt the project’s success, while the search for yet more alien worlds is set to continue well into the future.

Named after the 17th century German astronomer Johannes Kepler, NASA’s first planet-hunting space observatory was launched on 6 March 2009 into an ‘Earth-trailing’ orbit around the Sun.

Kepler is currently more than 137 million km away from Earth: almost the same distance as that between between Earth and the Sun!

Until 2013 Kepler was pointed towards the northern constellations of Cygnus, Lyra and Draco, deliberately looking away from the Sun throughout its entire orbit.

From this stable vantage point, Kepler could focus longterm on a small patch of space and hopefully detect the distinctive dimming of light caused by Earth-sized planets passing between their stars and the telescope’s sensors.

While Kepler’s fixed field of view covered just 115 square degrees, or 0.25 per cent of the sky, the scale of the project was nevertheless impressive, requiring the regular observation of more than 150,000 main sequence stars.

Kepler’s sole detector was a Schmidt camera with a 1.4m (55-inch) primary mirror.

The camera, with a total resolution of 94.6 megapixels, was the largest system launched into space at the time.

While it was operating, Kepler regularly downloaded roughly 12 gigabytes of data about once a month.

The first significant result of the Kepler mission was the confirmation of the already-detected transiting exoplanet HAT-P-7b (aka Kepler 2b).

At the end of 2009 NASA announced that Kepler’s first six weeks of data had revealed five previously unknown planets, all very close to their stars.

By the following June, initial data released on all but 400 of the telescope’s 156,000 planetary target stars included more than 700 thought to be viable exoplanet candidates.

As Kepler continued observations, these figures grew.

In February 2011, nearly two years into the mission, planetary candidates had risen to more than 1,200, with at least 54 located within their respective ‘habitable zones’.

By the end of the year the total had almost doubled to 2,326, with signifiant increases in the number of Earth-sized and ‘super-Earth’ worlds.

By any criteria, Kepler had been a great success. In November 2012 NASA confirmed that, while Kepler’s original mission had now officially been completed, it was going to be extended for up to four years.

However, by now one of the four ‘reaction wheels’ used to fine-tune Kepler’s positioning had failed.

Less than a year later, in May 2013, a second failure forced the premature abandonment of Kepler’s mission.

Except… Kepler enjoyed a ‘Second Light’.

By the close of 2013, NASA had proposed a second mission – K2 – utilising the telescope’s remaining capability to focus on a somewhat different patch of sky, taking on supernova explosions, star formations, asteroids and comets, as well as continuing to search for exoplanets.

NASA announced the first K2 exoplanet discovery (HIP 116454 b) in December 2014.

There is little doubt that Kepler’s findings have changed our understanding of the universe: based on its findings, astronomers at Caltech in 2013 proposed that the Milky Way contains at least as many planets as it does stars.

That’s between 100-400 billion exoplanets!

Kepler has also helped personalise the subject on Earth through citizen science.

Since December 2010, some 300,000 volunteers across the globe have examined Kepler data through the Planet Hunters website, making an invaluable contribution to real astronomy by detecting and helping confirm numerous candidate exoplanets.

Since 2017 Exoplanet Explorers – a joint initiative between Zooniverse and ABC Stargazing Live in Australia – has focused on data from the K2 mission.

Examination of Kepler’s data will likely continue for many years to come.

At the very least, Kepler already leaves a legacy of more than 2,600 exoplanet discoveries.

“Thanks to Kepler, we’re one step closer to finding a planet that could harbour life and one step closer to finding life elsewhere in the universe,” according to NASA’s Astrophysics Division Director, Dr Paul Hertz.

“New NASA missions will build on Kepler’s discoveries including the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), and the James Webb Space Telescope, both of which will take our search for life in the universe to new levels,” he says.

“The Kepler Mission has been a huge success in finding there are more planets that stars in our galaxy,” according to William J Borucki, the Retired Principal Investigator on the Kepler mission.

“Many of these planets are near in size to the Earth, and they’re about the right distance from their star so they can have liquid water on their surface.


If the Kepler space telescope was pointed at our solar system, would it be able to detect our planets?

If the Kepler telescope was 100 or 1000 light years from our solar system, would we be able to detect the planets of our solar system? From my understanding, planets need to be of a certain size, or orbit around the sun quite quickly for us to get enough data to detect the movements of the sun, not to mention be close enough to the sun. Since the close planets are relatively small, and our larger ones are so far away, would we be able to detect anything?

Kepler searches for occlusions, so it can only detect planets when we are looking at the edge of the system. So the answer to your question depends on a precise location, not just the distance. If it doesn't look at the edge, it can't detect planets at all. Looking at the edge of Solar System from 1000 ly away - Kepler should be able to detect Venus, Earth and Mars with good certainty within few years, judging by one of its latest discoveries.

Iɽ say the answer is not quite.

Here's a plot showing planets discovered by Kepler (looks like it was last updated in January). The plots shows the orbital period (i.e., how long a year is) and size of all the planets. For a given size, a shorter period generally means the planet is closer to the star. [Although this depends on some other things, such as the mass of the star and planet.] The data are obtained from 22-months of continuously observing the same set of stars. (The axes are logarithmic--that means that, instead of 1,2,3. being equally spaced, 10,100,1000. are equally spaced)

Kepler detects planets by looking for dips in the amount of light coming from the star when the planet crosses in front of it (and in some cases when the planet goes behind it!). Here are some sample lightcurves, from a pretty good astrobite. Bigger planets are easier to detect, because the dip in the lightcurve is larger. So are closer in planets, because the dip occurs more often.

*Earth-sized planets are observed with orbital periods out to

100 days. Compared to our orbital period of 365 days, thats much closer in. So, we can't really find an Earth-size planet at an Earth-sized radius. *Venus, which is about the same size as the Earth, has an orbital period of 224 days. *Mercury is about 4/10 the size of Earth, and has an orbital period of 82 days. *Jupiter-sized planets are observed with orbital periods out to

400 days, 10 times less than Jupiters orbital period of

4300 days. *Neptune-sized planets are observed with orbital periods out to

200 days, much less than the 60,000 days it takes Neptune to complete an orbit around the Sun..

So, Kepler hasn't reached the regime of any of the planets in our Solar System, but it's getting there.

Also, all the points in the upper-left corner are pretty cool. Those are called "Hot Jupiters"---Jupiter mass planets that are much closer to their host stars than Mercury is to Sun. This was largely unexpected


Comments

November 2, 2018 at 8:36 pm

I am very sad to hear of the end of the Kepler mission. I have always felt that its contribution to the knowledge of our place in the universe is perhaps the most important science that has ever been done. There has been a huge gain in our understanding of the universe since the Renaissance, but determining the probability of life outside our solar system has remained almost an entirely unknown quantity until Kepler. It is amazing to me that in my lifetime we have started to take the first basic steps in answering that question.

And the solar wind idea for K2. I don't know who came up with that concept, but you folks are amazing.

Congratulations to all the scientists, engineers, and mission planners at NASA for such an outstanding success!


What decided how the Kepler space telescope was pointed? - astronomija

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